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What's new?


- 07.28.08:

- The Final Program is now ready. Also, new speakers and abstracts have been added to the Speakers-page.


- 06.27.08:

- New updates have been added to the Program.


- 06.01.08:

- Mayor updates have been added to the Program. Please check for new additions and changes.

York University



Amegago, Modesto Mawulolo

"Interrogating the roots, elements, and crossovers of the Caribbean Carnival: A Case of West African Celebrations":
         This paper investigates the origin of the Caribbean Carnival, commonalities of this Carnival and some West African festivals as well as cross fertilizations that continue to take place. The introduction interrogates claims made by some Afrocentric scholars about the African origin of the Carnival with reference to some of the ancient celebrations along the Nile valley and Egypt. The paper further reviews the salient features of the Caribbean Carnival in relation to those that may be observed in some West African celebrations. It further highlights the ongoing exchange of cultural and artistic ideas among the West African and Diaspora Africans.

Modesto Amegago began his artistic and cultural training among the Anlo-Ewes of Ghana. He worked with the Ghana Education Service (from 1981-85) as a classroom teacher and instructor of many performing groups, and taught at the University of Ghana, School of Performing Arts (from 1989 to 1990) . He also served as a Cultural Officer in the Eastern Region Centre for National Culture in Ghana (1991). In 1991, Amegago received Geoffrey and Margaret Andrews Fellowship in the Creative and Performing Arts to study at and teach at the University of British Columbia, School of Music. He has taught interdisciplinary African music and dance and culture at the Simon Fraser University, University of Arizona, Arizona State University and is currently in the Dance Department at York University. He also directs Nutifafa Afrikan Performance Ensemble, a Toronto based Performing group. Professor Amegago has performed extensively with artists from various parts of the world. His research areas include the cultural context of the performing arts, music and dance, creative and performance processes, cross cultural aesthetics and arts education. He has presented at a number of conferences and published a number of articles.

Antoine, Henry Lewis

"Bastards of the Carnival Tradition – from Trinidad to new York and Montreal":
         An analysis of Caribbean style festivals in North America – comparing the New York and Montreal Carnivals. Discussion will focus on the Haitian influence in Montreal, the Hispanic influence in NY, as well as the potential social functions of carnival in the North American context. This shows Carnival in North America as a hybrid, and in some ways an assimilation of base elements of Caribbean-style carnivals, so that while all North American carnivals are showcases of creative pageantry and innovative costuming, they lack the non-formal, bacchanalian atmosphere of a truly Caribbean-style carnival. The high point of these carnivals is usually a costume band parade that is more akin to a Macys Thanksgiving Day parade, with Eurocentric floats, flag-waving nationals, reggae music, Haitian compass, and Spanish salsa all contributing to a multi-ethnic carnival amalgamation that little resembles a Port-of-Spain carnival. This is an important structural and social dynamic to analyse.

After moving to Toronto, Canada, from Trinidad and Tobago in 1968, Henry Antoine became a leader in the social and cultural life of the growing and dynamic Caribbean community, forging links with Caribbean immigrants living in other industrialized nations outside of the Caribbean region. He participated in the first ever calypso competition held as part of the Caribana Carnival celebrations at the Maple Leaf Gardens in 1971. As a member of the Toronto Symphony Steel band he promoted major cultural events during the Caribana Carnival Festival at the Sheraton Center. In 1972 Mr. Antoine produces the first Soca album for the late Mr. Garfield Blackman (Lord Shorty). In 1973 he also produces the first ever album for Gemini Brass. Mr. Antoine also pioneered quite a number of big name bands and Calypsions out of Trinidad and other Caribbean Islands to Canada. Mr. Antoine studied Management Planning for Productivity at the Ryerson Polytechnic Institute, and graduated from Lewis Hotel Motel School in Hotel and Motel Management. Since 1973 he has played an active role in the annual Montreal Carnival (then called CARIFETE). Elected Secretary Treasurer of the Montreal Carnival Development Committee in 1976 he helped restructure CARIFEST, and in 1982 he was appointed to manage the Montreal Carnival (now called CARIFIESTA).
         In 1986 he was elected the first President of the North America - England Carnival Association and in 1983 undertook to reorganize the international carnival organization into the International Caribbean Carnival Association (ICCA), becoming it President. Under his leadership the ICCA had at its zenith 43 members in Canada, the Caribbean, the USA and Europe. Mr. Antoine still heads the international movement, under the new name of World Carnival Commission ( WCC ).

Arthur, Loyce L.

"Artists Who Dare: Carnival Designers":
         Band leaders such as Clary Salandy, Mahogany, London UK, and Peter Minshall, Callaloo, Trinidad, are just a few of the highly creative artists who have carved out successful, award-winning careers for themselves as carnival designers. They use the city streets as their canvases and masses of people sporting costumes of fantastic heights as their medium transforming urban landscapes with color and wildly imaginative shapes and forms, making audacious statements about a wide range of community and societal concerns that can also transform the hearts of participants and audiences alike. And yet, like carnival itself, they struggle for legitimacy and to be taken seriously. Carnival design is often labeled “campy,” “kitsch,” “commercial,” “folk art,” and at the very worst, “tacky,” “tasteless,” and “nothing but bikinis and g-strings worn by drunken revelers.” As scholarship on carnival expands and broadens, the artistic contributions of contemporary carnival designers also deserves more attention.

Loyce Arthur (BA, University of Pennsylvania, MFA, New York University) is a costume designer, an associate professor and Head of Design in the Theatre Arts Department. She has designed costumes for numerous productions including carnival costumes for the University of Iowa’s Afro-Cuban Drum & Dance Ensemble; a Asian theatre inspired production of The Magic Flute at the Chicago Cultural Center; Brokenville, and Nocturnal Wanderer at the Aggelon Vima Theatre, Athens, Greece; Famous Orpheus, by Oyamo, a musical re-telling of Black Orpheus set in Trinidad, at the Geva Theater, NY; a special OBIE award production of Langston Hughes’ Black Nativity; Box Office of the Damned at the Classic Stage Company Theatre, New York and The Brothers Sun and Moon at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Washington D.C. Her work at the University of Iowa includes Versailles, Shadows of the Reef, Angels in America , and The Learned Ladies. Research awards have given her the opportunity to study mask making in Italy, ritual and performance in Ghana, West African traditional arts and performance in Cote d’Ivoire, Balinese mask traditions, as well as East Indian Kutiyattam and Kathakali theatre forms. Fall 2006 & 2007 she was a guest artist in London, working with carnival artist Clary Salandy. She is planning for an exhibition on carnival design at the University of Iowa’s Museum of Art in 2010. She is a member of United Scenic Artists, United States Institute for Theatre Technology, and International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians.

Babiak, Peter

“A Broadened View from Taping the Parade”:
         John Cowley has noted that whereas "The functionalist view of Carnival is that it serves as a safety-valve in a politically repressive society ... others saw Carnival as a time when social change might be effected or... influenced". Unlike the annual Toronto Pride Parade, which has become increasingly dominated by advertising for political parties and private enterprises, The Toronto Caribbean Carnival serves as a forum for the communication of group identity, the dissemination of social critique, and the exploration of aesthetic ideals. These characteristics of the Toronto Caribbean Carnival render it as resistant to the limited definition of carnival as safety-valve as proposed by Bakhtin, instead identifying it as an expression of the gestalt of Caribbean experience and culture in Canada. As an expression of the gestalt of Caribbean culture in Canada, the annual parade engages a multiplicity of techniques in it's presentation simultaneously; including costume, narrative, choreography, music, and cultural history. Although initially usefull in formulating a tentative approach to understanding the dynamics of the parade, the functionalist view of Carnival as safety-valve ultimately precludes an understanding of the subtle and interrelated dynamics of the whole of the parade's presentations.

Peter E.S. Babiak is a student in the Graduate Program in English at York University, an instructor at the School of Continuing Education, Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, and an instructor at the School of Continuing Education, Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology. Currently completing his doctoral dissertation on Representations of Shakespeare in the Cinema, Peter has presented 5 papers at Annual Meetings of the U.S. Popular Culture Association, and has published 6 articles in CineAction Magazine. Peter is also a research assistant to the Canada Research Chair in Performance and Culture, and is involved in the creation of an on-line database of street theatre.

Barbe, Marvin - Raven, Olivia and Gonzalez, Ivan R.

"A Novel London-Based Project to Integrate Steelpan with Performing Arts":
         Nostalgia is a London based steelband that has been performing with a strong Trinidadian cultural tradition for over 50 years. This paper will discuss its engagement of young people in community activities, and its divers projects, which include a Performance Arts and Media Centre for young people, workshops in dance, drama, video, singing and design, and producing original work for stage and screen. Their aims are to dismantle cultural, physical, economic and attitudinal barriers by creating opportunities to participate in the arts; to work with partners in the community; and to contribute to the social regeneration, environment and economics of the immediate community and of Greater London. The project provides a good model to link performing arts and media to steelpan and broaden the arena of street theatre and carnival.

Marvin Barbe is a Learning Support Assistant, Social Inclusion worker, and Steelpan tutor, and Lead pan player and arranger, Paddington Arts Project, Notting Hill, UK. As Steelpan Community Link Coordinator he fosters links between Nostalgia Steelband, Salusbury Primary School and Paddington Arts.
         With Nostalgia he has played at the ‘Football World Cup 2006’, Victoria and Albert Museum workshops, ‘Pan Fest’ (Germany and Switzerland), the BBC’s ‘East Enders’, Channel 4’s ‘Big Brother’ and a large number of festivals and charity events throughout the UK.

Baxter, Guy

[co-author with Eithne Nightingale]:
         Since 2002 Guy has been Archivist and Conservation Manager, V&A Theatre Collections, which is the UK’s national collection for performing arts. From 2005 until 2008 he was Chair of the Theatre Information Group, a national network for performing arts archives and libraries, and he is currently Project Archivist of the Trading Faces: Recollecting Slavery project funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund. Guy has a BA in History and an MScEcon in Archive Administration from the University of Wales, Aberystwyth.

Bessong, Daniel

[co-presenter with Haroun Shah]
         Daniel is a Community Worker and Councillor in the London Borough of Brent (Ward of Wembley Central). Worked on numerous social programmes including ‘Local Involvement Networks’ to reform ‘Patient and Public Involvement Forums’ while advising the Borough’s executive on new projects. Governor of a primary school. He is also completing a postgraduate degree in Economics of Education (Institute of Education, University of London). He began playing with Nostalgia seven years ago and teaches percussion to teachers and trainee music teachers.

Bogar, Brigitte

"Fastelavn – Copenhagen Carnival":
         When looking at the carnival tradition in Denmark it is striking how the old tradition of Fastelavn is connected to a particular time of the year. It is not acted out in 40 degrees Celsius, but more likely in minus 5 – in February the darkest month of the year and marking the beginning of Lent, but with pagan elements such as sacrificing cats symbolizing the devil. The original Danish tradition serves a purpose – the purpose of marking the turn between the cold winter and the very first sparkle of spring light and of keeping evil spirits away. Nowadays it is a children's festival that has lost most of it's original meaning and cultural significance. This paper will try to show the secularization and infantialization of the carnival tradition

Brigitte Bogar holds degrees in Music Science, in Theatre and in Dramaturgy from the University of Copenhagen. She is a production manager, who has organized a series of international conferences, including this one on Carnival, and is training as an opera singer. She has presented papers on Musical Theatre at the Shaw festival, in Los Angeles and in Germany.

Brumant, Evangelica

(co-presenter with Haroun Shah)
         Evangelica is Office Manager, Youth Leader and Musical Leader, Shern Hall Methodist Church, Walthamstow, where she tutors the youth group alongside Lionel McCalman She led Nostalgia at many distinguished events including a performance for Her Majesty The Queen (2007), Notting Hill Carnival, Lords Cricket Ground, etc.

Burke, Suzanne Deborah

"Policing the People’s Festival – State policy and the Trinidad Carnival Complex":
         The Trinidad carnival is one of the few cultural expressions that have been subject to ongoing policy intervention, even predating the country’s independence in 1962. Beginning in 1957, Premier Eric Williams established the Carnival Development Committee (CDC) which was tasked with developing the ‘people’s festival’ under the banner of national identity. In 1991, the CDC was replaced by the National Carnival Commission whose mandate while mirroring that of its predecessor also included a new policy direction that sought to activate the economic potential of the festival both at home and abroad. This paper explores the inherent disjunctures between the nation centric approach touted by policy framers, the state’s adhesion to regional and international regulative trade agreements, and the transnational impetus of the carnival. The view of carnival policy presented in this paper explains the relationship between policy, politics and people as contested domains with diverse interests and ideologies.

Dr. Burke is a development specialist with over fifteen years professional experience, whose work involves teaching, research, and advocacy. She was formally trained in the areas of Psychology (B.A. York University, Canada), Development (M.A. Institute of Social Studies, Netherlands), and Sociology (PhD Essex University, UK). Dr. Burke has worked in the areas of HRM (Organizational development & change, Conflict management, and workplace policies for HIV/AIDS), Enterprise Development and Marketing for the cultural industries, and Events Management. She has worked extensively with a wide cross section of public sector enterprises, civil society organisations and private agencies at the local, regional and international levels. Her PhD thesis was entitled ‘Policing the Transnational; Cultural Policy Development in the Anglophone Caribbean’. As part of this concentration, she has been lecturing in the areas of Cultural Policy, Marketing for the Arts, and Events Management since 2001. She currently lectures at the Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of Business (UWI, St Augustine) in the Master of Marketing and the Event Management Certificate programmes.

Chock, Jeffrey

" ‘Mas’ looking at Mas: From Colonisation to Globalization":
         The usual description of Carnival's development in Trinidad goes as follows: first Europeans, mostly French, brought Carnival festivities (Mas) to the island. Following abolition the formerly enslaved Africans used the festivities to celebrate their liberation and maintain their own festive ideas while the white elites mostly retreated in fear and disgust. What is lost in that description is that from the beginning, mas was looking at mas. White women at Carnival time imitated the costume of the mulatto woman. Stickfighters and jab jabs, (Africans and later East Indians) adopted in their Carnival attire the heart shaped fol characteristic of the jester in the European tradition. This paper comments on the various modes of interraction from satire and violence to compromise, giving visual examples of mixture and confrontation in depictions of Trinidad Carnival, including my photographs. The analysis then turns to what happened with the introduction of Caribbean festive forms in the capitals of the “First World” and the pivotal role played in this dynamic by the Trinidadian model. At the same time, Trinidadian Carnival itself is now importing festive forms from, for instance Brazil, and a significant part of the Carnival production process is now outsourced to China and other countries . Can Carnival sustain its integrity in this new kind of globalized system of spectacle?

Jeffrey Chock is a professional photographe in Port of Spain, Trinidad where his work has focused on the performing arts and on the practitioners of these disciplines, both in their productions and in real life. He has documented every single Carnival since 1979 and has acquired extensive information about the history and in-workings of the festival. His work in that area is closely related to his interest in performance.
         Chock's photographs have been exhibited in Port of Spain, Toronto, Hartford, Con., Hamburg and Martinique and were featured in the fall 1998 issue of The Drama Review and in Carnival: Culture in Action – The Trinidad Experience (Milla Cozart Riggio ed., New York and London: Routledge, 2004). He was an invited participant in the World Carnival conference held in Hartford, Con. in 1998, and was consultant and main photographer for "The history of the Renegades Steel Orchestra of Trinidad, (London: Macmillan Caribbean, 2002). He has spoken at the University of Califonia (Los Angeles) “Trinidad Carnival photographs by Jeffrey Chock” was published by Medianet Ltd in 2006. He is currently preparing a monograph of Narrie Approo, a legendary Carnival performance artist.

Coombs-Montrose, Donna

"Cariwest Makes Gigantic Leap for Western Canada's Carnival Community":
         How does a small remotely located community like Edmonton make its carnival mark? Fresh out its hosting of International Mas Workshops, Cariwest is moving to frontstage to gain recognition and respect for the contributions of its diaspora carnival community. Its innovations and development plan will be presented at this Conference.

Donna Coombs-Montrose is President of CARIWEST/Western Carnival Development Association (now celebrating its 24th year of existence), and Director of the Edmonton-based Caribbean Women’s Network, as well as a founding member of the Caribbean Diaspora Initiative (CADI). She is also Consulting Archivist at the Alberta Labour History Institute a Member of Living History, both with responsibility for recording the histories of Caribbean immigrants in Alberta.

Creet, Julia

"Giorgio Spiller's grotesques on the streets of Venice Carnival":
         The successful rebirth of the Venice Carnivale in 1979, brought with it the tensions common to many modern carnivals, the carnal vs the aesthetic, the locally political vs the touristic. From 1980 to 1986, Giorgio Spiller, a Venetian mask maker, created a series of costumes to protest the commercial and administrative control of the reborn Carnival. Full-body genitalia, each costume was both beautifully constructed and manifestly grotesque, in a vein worthy of Rabelais, and each pilloried both the idea of the mask and the national sexual obsessions of the tourists who flocked to Venice.

Julia Creet is an Associate Professor and currently Chair of the Department of English at York University. Her teaching interests are in literary nonfiction and satire, while her recent research interests have been altogether too sombre having just completed a documentary, “MUM,” about the memoirs of a holocaust survivor who tried to forget.

Cyrus, Karen

"Sounds of the Carnival Diaspora: Amateur Steel Bands in the GTA":
         The steel pan, a musical icon of the carnival Diaspora, has penetrated far beyond its original ethnic confines to be found in countries such as Poland, Switzerland and China. Though its presence in Canada is most visible at events such as Caribana, amateur and professional steel bands may be heard and seen at smaller street festivals in and around the GTA throughout the year. This paper is an ethnographic study of amateur bands in the GTA, examining the socio-cultural significance of these groups within their respective communities, and discussing the various tenets of the steel band community in the GTA, their concepts of community and musical metaphors, as well as the social roles that these groups strive to fulfill within their respective communities.

Karen Cyrus is an ethnomusicologist whose research interests include the resources, rhythms, and repertoire for steel band classes and social functions of steel band groups in the Greater Toronto Area.

Davis, Christine

"Introducing Steelpan Music to Children with Severe Impairment":
         Music forms part of the curriculum of all main stream schools. Less developed, however, is the attention given to children with impairment, especially where disability impacts on movement or speech. Hay Lay School is a special needs school in North West London attended by children with severe learning difficulties, some with profound and multiple learning difficulties and others with autistic spectrum disorders. For years the school has utilised music effectively to communicate and enrich the lives of the most severely disabled, but when steelpan was introduced through Nostalgia into the school’s activities, the children reacted with excitement. Workshops, Christmas shows and summer parades were successfully undertaken; combining steelpan with other instruments or song. One example was “One World”, a week of music and carnival performance in which every child participated. These experiences provide good evidence of the innate quality of steelpan music to act as a medium for communication and expression and had a marked effect on the success of the school's application for ‘Artsmark’, an accredited national system for setting standards of achievement.

Head of the Primary Department of a special-need school, Hay Lane School, Kingsbury, London, Christine Davis is also a Steelpan Tutor – for “One world” music week in collaboration with Nostalgia (2005-2008), workshops and a “pan-around-the neck” parade.

Douglas, Andrea

"Masquerade Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow":
         Culture and art are a powerhouse creating commanding links in the lives of individuals, community and the world as a whole, generated from traditional origins. Masquerade, a masked dance tradition with roots deeply embedded in the West African Diaspora, has been one of the secular expressions that is now firmly planted in the Western hemisphere. At seasonal intervals its transformed remnants, brilliantly laced in colour and glitter, cascade down city streets. Reflection on a similar scenario against the background of the plantation environment shows basically the same pattern. What would differ however would be controlled abandonment – an absence of rich color, loud techno sound and the sensual and sexuality now displayed.
         The question is what’s next? This paper will explore the changing cultural of the masquerade tradition. It will look at the performance context as street art and theatre. It will address its transformation to parallel with modern art, freedom of expression and exploitation, and investigate its politicization.

Currently a School Administrator with the Toronto District Board of Education, Canada, Andrea Douglas is the founder and Artistic Director of the Children’s Dance Theatre. She holds a Bachelor of Education, a Bachelor of Fine Arts, and a Master of Fine Arts. She has worked as a professional performer, instructor and choreographer in Guyana, Barbados, St. Lucia, Cuba, Jamaica, USA and Canada. She has worked with celebrated choreographers such a Lavinia Williams, Astor Johnson, Eduardo Riviera, as well as Rex Nettleford and the Jamaica National Dance Theatre Company. Andrea is noted for her high energy and social commentary pieces such as Tambo, Odyssey, Dance Pique, Echoes of the Motherland, and Danza Bahia, and Urban Reality. Andrea directs the Theatre’s annual recital “From Studio to Stage”, and has written and directed the Dance Team’s full length pantomime Anancy Learns to Work, the Glory of Christmas, and All into Lights. Andrea has choreographed, and led workshops for the Toronto District Board of Education, Afro-Caribbean Dance Group, Scarborough Caribbean Youth Ensemble, Ballet Creole, Dance Caribe Performing Company and the Caribbean Dance Theatre, which she also founded in 1993 and was the 1st Artistic Director.
         She is also actively involved with community organizations such as the Applause Institute & Finishing School’s Cotillion Ball, contributing as facilitator and free-lance choreographer. She has also given presentations, lecture demonstrations, and symposiums at conferences in Toronto, and is the 2005 recipient of the Guyana Cultural Association of New York Award.

Elias, Kristine Frank

"The Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club: Creating Image and Identity":
         In 1909, a group of working class African Americans in New Orleans, who had formed a club called The Tramps, attended a musical comedy at the Pythian Theatre. There they saw a skit portraying a Zulu tribe titled “There Never Was and Never Will Be a King Like Me.” During Mardi Gras that year, the club paraded as the Zulus, and by 1916 they had established the costumes for which they would become known: blackface make-up, and grass skirts, wrist, and ankle bands.
         Blackface imagery, often associated with the minstrel show developed in the nineteenth century, is broadly considered stereotypical and derogatory to African-Americans. As a result, the Zulus have received negative commentary from Civil Rights groups and others over the years. Despite pressure to change their parading costumes and traditions, the blackface imagery continues to be central to the identity of the organization.
         This research explores the historical and social context in which the Zulu created and developed their identity, and how their presence in New Orleans has shaped the racial discourse of Mardi Gras. Using semiotic analysis, this paper looks at the contemporary imagery of the parades, costumes, characters, and associated objects to understand how the Zulu have evolved their unique visual identity.

Kristine Frank Eliasis a graduate student in the Art History department at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota. The focus of her studies is African and African Diaspora art and visual culture. She hopes to expand her research on the Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club to complete her qualifying paper. She holds a B.A. degree from the University of Minnesota in Speech / Communications.

Ellis, Blakka

"Ragamuffin Bacchanal: From Johnkunnu to Passa-Passa. Carnival in Jamaican Culture":
         The current post-Easter ‘Jamaica Carnival’ which imitates and borrows from the Trinidadian experience is a great entertainment product, but not necessarily a valid exemplar of carnival in Jamaica. There was carnival in Jamaica before Byron Lee.
Exploring the ‘community-owned dance space’ as a place of power, and examining the sounds, movements and spectacle of the dance hall as street art, this paper will put a focus on genuine expressions of the carnivalesque in Jamaican culture. The presentation will trace discernable manifestations of these expressions from the early street masquerade of costumed characters to the contemporary street dances. The assumption of archetypal characters, employment of crowd choreography, staging of the grotesque, and the transformation/acquisition of public space will all come under the scope of the video light in the context of their demonstration of a people’s art, as well as their illustration of subversive mass challenge to formal power structures.

Blakka Ellis is a teacher, writer and performing artist. He interests relate to masculinity, gender relations, urban violence, and Jamaican popular culture. His work as actor, comedian and musician has been enjoyed throughout the Caribbean, and all over Europe and North America. Blakka worked as a teacher of English Language, Literature and Drama in the Jamaican secondary school system in the 80s; and lectured in Community Drama/Popular Theatre at the Edna Manley College of the Visual & Performing Arts for 11 years before migrating to Canada in 2004. He’s is currently reading for a graduate degree at York University’s Faculty of Environmental Studies, where his area of focus is Gender, Art and Social Change, with a specific emphasis on the intersection of Masculinity, Misogyny and Music. Publications: “MEN & Their FAMILIES” - Contributions of Caribbean Men to Family Life University of the West Indies 1994; “GATEMAN- The poetry of Blakka Ellis” ed. Kwame Dawes; Calabash International Literary Festival Trust, 2005; “BLAKKA’S BOX” – A weekly social commentary column in the Jamaican newspaper The STAR (since July, 2005).

Englar, Jerry with Leida Englar

"History of Shadowland and their Take Back The Streets work":
         This presentation includes a brief history of Shadowland Theatre and their mentors; First Nation Artists; Welfare State International, Peter Minshall and the people of Carnivals. Jerry and Leida Englar were co-founders of Shadowland Theatre whose roots lie in their community on Toronto Island. Inspired by Welfare State International from England, Shadowland created their style of celebratory Theatre. The Englars believe in the true definition of Celebration which is "to make note of". Shadowland was invited into Caribana in 1985 and then went to Trinidad Carnival and worked and studied with Peter Minshall building large costumes. A project called Island to Island was formed. The Englars were inspired to use the forms of Carnival and Agiprop Theatre to further their Take Back The Streets work, whether it be for Peace, community celebration, or demonstrating for human and environmental rights.

Chicago-born Jerry Englar immigrated to Toronto in 1962 and became a citizen of Canada in 1974. He worked as a professional landscape architect on a variety of projects including urban parks and squares, national and provincial parks, conservations areas, social housing developments, university campus design, highway and parkway design, and private residential design. In 1970 he accepted a full time appointment teaching drawing and design in the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Toronto. His education includes degrees in Landscape Architecture from Michigan State University, The Graduate School of Design at Harvard University, and the Artists Workshop in Toronto. Since retiring, his work as a designer, painter, panoramist, builder, and jazz musician has been expanded to include working with Shadowland as a founding board member on Island Follies, designer builder for Caribana, the annual Island Fire Parade, exhibitions of paintings at the Rectory Gallery, and the bi-annual Rouge Wave outdoor art exhibition. Jerry is professor emeritus of the Fake Art School/Ecole des Faux Arts, a weekly painting group on the Toronto Islands. The main focus of his visual art is 360 degree panoramas. He maintains a strong conviction that 360 degree perception is essential for contemporary environmental problem solving. A long-time activist in the fight to reclaim the Island Airport lands for the citizens of Toronto, Jerry, and a dedicated group of protesters have been beating the drums and making music while keeping a vigil every Friday from 5:30 to 7:30 pm through snow, sleet, rain, cold, dark, hot, and frozen conditions since October 6, 2006 and will continue until this catastrophe on the Toronto waterfront is closed!

Englar, Leida

[co-presenter with Jerry Englar]
         Leida's professional career includes spells in the field of cancer research as well as art education. In 1984 she was a co-founder, Artistic Director, Designer/Builder, and General Manager for Shadowland Theatre Inc., which has four Dora awards to its credit. Since 1985 she's been a Bandleader, Production and Costume Designer and Builder for the Caribana Festival, as well as working for the Trinidad Carnival. Since 1997 she's had various watercolour exhibitions in Canada, the U.S.A., Trinidad/Tobago, and Baja, Mexico. Leida is a dedicated Artist, Environmentalist, Peace and Community activist. Dedicated to the Celebratory Arts, Leida believes that Art (in all its forms) empowers all who do it. Leida has been a leader in the use of recycled materials in all her community and professional work. She has worked in the Aboriginal Communities of Ohswegan, New Credit, Gabriel Dumont, Big Cove, N.B., and Wikwemikong. She has designed and built costumes for Native Earth Performing Arts, Zapa Teatre, Red Pepper Spectacle Arts, and the Centre for Indiginous Theatre . Leida has worked with the Waterfront Community since 1997 and sat on the board of the Harbourfront Community Association for 3 years. Leida co-produced Buffalo Jump Ahead in 1993 and has worked in the Buffalo Jump Artists' Collective since 1999.

Ensfelder, Sabrina

"The African heritage in Trinidad’s Carnival: from cultural resistance to identity negotiation":
         Today’s Caribbean Carnival is the result of cross-cultural negotiations but it is also the manifestation of multicultural constructs. While Caribbean cultural expression is diverse, a look at Caribbean street theatre, namely carnival parade, indicates similarities in terms of rituals, aesthetic, music and dance.
         African culture has spread through New World’s carnivals in visible ways as seen in the vivid colours of costumes and characters that bring to mind those of the lively characters of African parades, in the theatricality of street performances, which, along with songs and dances, evoke religious and secular parades as well as oral traditions and choreographies from Africa. If African cultural retentions have been largely possible in the Caribbean through a process of desacralization, it helped however to create a gap in terms of ritual interpretations and code significance in Trinidad carnival. Yet, this process also contributed to generate what is, today, the expression of a multicultural nation. A Trinidadian novelist, Earl Lovelace, has been particularly meaningful with his analysis of the ongoing process of identity negotiation in Trinidad’s carnival in his novel The Dragon Can’t Dance, and this book will be used to explore African heritages in the carnival of Trinidad, and also the manifestation of Trinidadian national identity in carnival.

Sabrina Ensfelder is a Phd Candidate of Cultural Studies in the English department of the University of Francois-Rabelais in Tours (France). She is currently working on her thesis ‘Marginal religions of the Americas’ and focuses more specifically on the Caribbean and the Caribbean diaspora. She received both her B.A and M.A in English from the University of Antilles-Guyane (Martinique) and also received a M.A in French and Francophone Literature from the University of Delaware (USA).

Esdelle, Chantal

"In our House: Clive Bradley’s representation of the constituent and geographic community of the Desperadoes Steel Orchestra in his Panorama Arrangement of the calypso “In my House":
         J.D. Elder describes the music, dance, and art of the cannes brûlées as being a “dramatic message” that represents the worldview, belief system, and philosophy of the performers themselves. This paper looks at the way arrangers for steel band effect this representation in their panorama arrangements through its analysis of Clive Bradley’s arrangement of Emmanuel Synnette’s calypso “In my House” for the W.I.T.C.O Desperadoes Steel Orchestra. By examining the arrangement, the arranger’s method of teaching it to the players, and the performance of the work in the Panorama Competition during Trinidad and Tobago’s Carnival in 1999, the paper considers how the arranger is able to represent the diversity, in terms of class, religion and musical culture, and the relationships that exist among the players and supporters who constitute Desperadoes’ steel band community. The paper also questions whether Bradley is able to fulfill both a communal and artistic purpose in his representation and whether his representation may be extended to fit a national model.

Chantal Esdelle is a graduate student in Ethnomusicology at York University. She holds a Bachelor degree in music in jazz composition from Berklee College of music where her principle instrument was the piano. She also plays the steel pans and has won the World Steel band Music Festival Solo Competition. As a pianist she leads the Caribbean Jazz Group Moyenne and has performed in several Caribbean Jazz Festivals, including the Havana International Jazz Festival. Chantal writes occasionally for the Trinidad and Tobago Review and produces a weekly radio programme featuring Caribbean Jazz Artists for the WAVE station affiliate in Trinidad and Tobago 100.5WMJX. Her current studies are centred on musical forms from Trinidad and Tobago; kaiso jazz and the steelband panorama arrangements of Clive Bradley.

Ferris, Lesley

"Designing for the Diaspora: Images of Resistance in Contemporary British Carnival":
         Today London’s Notting Hill Carnival is considered the largest street theatre event in Europe and the artists who design carnival bands often find inspiration in their imagined idea of Africa. One such artist is Clary Salandy, the co-founder of Mahogany Arts Ltd., a mas(querade) camp located in Harlesden in North West London. Harlesden is the center of the London Borough of Brent’s large Afro-Caribbean community, and Salandy is committed to working with local youth and a range of young adults in her carnival workshop. This community aspect of Mahogany’s work is crucial. Local volunteers execute Salandy’s designs under her artistic guidance and expertise. Unlike the majority of mas camps in London, Mahogany stays open year round, catering to a range and variety of carnival design commissions. Yet the centerpiece of Mahogany’s work is the once yearly Notting Hill Carnival. Since 2000, Salandy has designed four mas bands that feature aspects of Africa within a larger frame of allegorical themes or stories of resistance and celebration. These include “Carnival Messiah” (2000), “A Touch of Africa” (2001), “The Afro-Asian Experience” (2004), and “Freedom Song” (2007). This paper examines Salandy’s iconic use of African images and symbols in her designs and it articulates the relationship (that can perhaps be described as hybrid interplay) between these designs and the community members who perform in her costumes on carnival day.

Lesley Ferris has chaired departments of theatre at four different universities: The Ohio State University, Louisiana State University, University of Memphis and Middlesex University. She has published numerous essays and articles on theatre and performance and her books include Acting Women: Images of Women in Theatre (Macmillan 1990) and Crossing the Stage: Controversies on Cross-Dressing (Routledge, 1993). Over the last decade she has been researching carnival in New Orleans, Baton Rouge and London. She was the theatre consultant for The Saint Louis Art Museum catalogue/book for their exhibit entitled Masks of Culture (1999). She has directed over forty productions in United Kingdom, the U.S.A., and most recently South Africa.

Fisher, George

         Grenadian by birth, he lectured in Nigeria, and was tutor in Politics and Race relations at Ruskin College, Oxford, as well as a junior fellow of St. Antony’s College, Oxford. Curriculum Advisor to Haringey Education Authority, he introduced Steelband music into schools in Nottingham, Coventry and Leicester. He is currently a Trustee and Board member of the UKCCA based in Luton, UK. He researched, scripted and part-financed a video on Caribbean History (1998-2000), and his “History Guide – Black History in the National Curriculum” (KS 3) is to be published 2007. Another special project is a study of Behind de Masquerade – Social and cultural styles in a Mass Camp, and his current interest is evaluating the impact of visual art on Black identity and Cultural pride. His hobbies are Photography, Music, Carnival Arts, Black Art, Cooking.

Flórez, Adriana

[co-presenter with Raul Gomez]
         Music Tutor with Lambeth Music Service and Southwark Council’s Children Services Department of Education and Culture from September 2003, using the Kodaly concept of music education. She conducts percussion and steelpan workshops, and runs a Caribbean Workshop for Music Teachers at Reading Council with Baraza Arts and Education. She compiled books and teacher’s guides for Lambeth Music Service’s Musitrax Wider Opportunities projects, including her own project ‘Music for Everyone’.
         She is Steelpan Tutor for Immanuel and St Andrews School (UK), as well as with Nostalgia Steelband, and has been a Steelpan Demonstrator for Pankultur, Dortmund, and for Hamburg Altona Carnival. She presented a workshop in Germany on ‘Developing Wider Opportunities in Music through Djembe, Steel drums and General Musician linked to Instrumental Teaching and Learning’ for the Gütersloh Music Centre, as part of the Ministry of Defence’s Children’s Education.

Funk, Ray

"Sir Lancelot: Taking Calypso from Carnival To Nightclubs, Hollywood, and the World":
          Sir Lancelot (Lancelot Pinard) came to New York to pursue medical studies but at a party was asked to sing a calypso. He so impressed the bandleader Gerald Clark that he was suddenly part of the band performing at the Village Vanguard and recording. Within a few years, he was touring colleges and made it to California during World War II where he lived for the rest of his life. His clear diction, high voice and his extemporary abilities found ready use in movies where he sang calypsos, folk songs, and had a variety of acting roles. Meanwhile he toured internationally, appeared on television and radio. Later in life, he created a unique style of religious calypsos.
         His calypso performance style proved adaptable to numerous mediums. His career is a reflection of how a distinctive Trinidad carnival form and one of its practitioners were able to find ways to adapt: he wrote calypsos on political issues in the US, was involved in peace movements after writing songs and did a cartoon supporting the United States War efforts in WWII, and wrote songs on male violence. His extempo ability made him popular in radio (he created unique commercials for the sponsors), gave him distinctive ways to sing and advance the plot in movies and even find a tour sponsor for South American tours, Pan Am airlines, writing a song about the airlines and serenading passengers up and down the aisles of the planes. His career offers an example of how this particular carnival art form is being taken around the world and into other mediums.

Ray Funk is a criminal trial judge for the Alaska Court System as well as a fellow of the Academy at UTT. He researches aspects of Trinidad Carnival, and edited a calypso newsletter. More recently he has been the co-curator of the online and traveling exhibit Calypso A World Music (see for the online portion of the exhibit). There were four conferences in connection with the exhibit at which he gave presentations: New York, Florida, Leeds (UK) and Port of Spain. He has articles published in recent anthologies,Music, Memory, Resistance: Calypso and the Caribbean Literary Imagination (Ian Randle, 2008) and Trinidad Carnival: The Cultural Politics of a Transnational Festival (Indiana University Press, 2007).

Gillam, Robyn

"Ancient Egyptian Carnival":
         Elements in Graeco-Roman Egyptian Culture and earlier Pharonic materials can be compared with elements in medieval and modern carnival. This paper will explore explore intercultural and temporal connections and consider their implications.

Robyn Gillam studied at Melbourne University and University College London and holds a Doctorate in Egyptian Language and Literature from the University of Toronto. Her areas of interest also include ancient performance and political and social issues around museums in Canada. Gillam's most recent work, "Performance and Drama in Ancient Egypt" was publised in 2005 by Duckworth Press in London.

Gomez, Raul - Flórez, Adriana and Raven, Olivia

"Teaching Steelpan Music in London Schools using Various Methods":
         As steelbands continue to establish and consolidate their position throughout the capital’s schools, the methods used to teach children as are varied as the cultural background of today’s tutors. Many of these tutors inevitable bring their own cultural influences which help to shape the style and diversity of each steelband. The feeder to the established steelbands in London are therefore derived from the conscientious and pioneering work undertaken in various schools in London. This is an immense resource which this art form must nurture and strive to continually improve. Notwithstanding the many varied methods employed by tutors, steelbands continue to grow and are represented at all major cultural events in modern British life. In less that 50 years this incredible instrument has permeated the fabric of this society and is now an essential part of the cultural heritage of London.

Raul Gomez is a recognised music teacher who also runs a large number of steelpan workshops and community projects in several South London schools. As a formally trained drummer and percussionist his method of teaching has a strong rhythmic and harmonic focus. Steelpan Demonstrator – Pankultur Dortmund, and Hamburg Altona Carnival – he was also Co-organiser, first Steelpan Conference, London (August, 2006), co-sponsored by the Arts Council, England.

Gonzalez, Ivan Rojo

[with Marvin Barbe]
         A Learning Support Assistant at Salusbury Primary School. Ivan as been an enthusiastic member and tutor with Nostalgia Steelband for over 8 years helped to foster links with Latin American Cultural events. He is a Steelpan tutor in many different independent community projects mainly in London, but also at Pankultur in Dortmund, Germany (2005-08) as well as in the Altona Carnival in Hamburg, Germany (2006). He is Steelpan Demonstrator at the Notting Hill Carnival in London and the Carnival of Lights in Bridgwater, England, and has played at a large number of varied events such as Summer Park Festivals.

Hall, Tony

"Jouvay Popular Theatre Process [JPTP]":
         During Jouvay, the early dawn opening of the Trinidad Carnival, revellers cover themselves in mud or paint and dance together to the strains of the steelband (pan) and calypso (kaiso) until the first sunlight. It is a ritual symbolic of renewal, regeneration and rebirth, a process of transformation in which participants seem to transcend their human form. This process we may call Jouvay Process. But Jouvay Process can also be seen as the continual manifestation of an awakening in the everyday lives of people on the islands as they emancipate themselves in the new world. This manifestation underscores a way of life that is reflected in the masquerade (mas) of the carnival days. The JPTP model, derived from musings on this Jouvay Process, was discovered out of a desire to understand and describe, in performance values, the mechanisms of awakening and self creation that are embedded in the emancipation traditions. The idea was to find a universal performance model to facilitate ways to re-inject the essence of mas creation back into the community in a time when nascent capitalism is rapidly changing the modes of making and presenting the mas.
         My presentation will introduce JPTP as an attempt to produce a wide reaching workshop framework for personal and communal intervention that would universalize the processes of self creation and group mobilization which manifest in the Trinidad Carnival.

Tony Hall writes plays for street, stage and screen. He has worked internationally as an actor and a director: in Canada and in the West Indies, also appearing in television drama in Canada CBC), the USA (NBC) and in the UK (BBC). He has also worked with Banyan Limited developing community television in the Caribbean, Gayelle TV. Mr. Hall has taught theatre at University of Alberta, Canada, King Alfred’s College, Winchester, UK and the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad. He has been Visiting Artist in Residence at Trinity College, Hartford, CT since 1998 and Academic Director at the Trinity-in-Trinidad Global Learning Site. He launched LORDSTREET THEATRE COMPANY [LTC], 'The Hummers', with the prize winning jouvay masquerade trilogy, A Band On Drugs (1990), A Band On Violence (1991), A Band On US (1992). LTC uses Jouvay Popular Theatre Process [JPTP] as a performance/production model and his theatre works include: the award-winning JEAN & DINAH . . . [Who Have Been Locked Away in a World Famous Calypso Since 1956 Speak Their Minds Publicly] (1994) first performed in Toronto in 2001; TWILIGHT CAFE [The Last Breakfast] (2002), which won the 2002 Cacique Award for The Most Outstanding Original Script, had a public reading at Artwood Theatre in Toronto, 2005, and hte North American premiere was produced by Theatre Archipelago, Toronto in May 2007; MACQUERIPE [A Navel Operation], a site specific theatrical meditation at Macqueripe Beach, Chaguaramas, Trinidad, 2003; THE BRAND NEW LUCKY DIAMOND HORSESHOE CLUB (2004) – a Calypso Musical [Blues Kaiso in Jouvay Opera] with book by Tony Hall, lyrics and music by David Rudder, premiered at Summer Stage 2004, Indiana State University, Terre Haute and performed at Queens Hall, Port of Spain, for Carnival 2006. Lucky Diamond won the 2005 Cacique Award for The Most Outstanding Original Music; and DIN SHURU [day breaks] (2005) - A Jouvay Opera with story by Ali Pretty & Mary Anne Roberts, book & lyrics by Tony Hall and music by Jit Samaroo. (A work in progress for Kinetika Art Links International, UK.)

Henry, Jeff

"Resistance through Performance":
         This paper attempts to deconstruct the belief that the ‘carnival’ as presented in Trinidad in the streets today is entirely of French origin. It further explores the dynamics of power that existed after the emancipation in 1838, and the struggle for survival of the African forms. Researching the Trinidad ‘carnival’ over the past ten years, reveals the original name as ‘masquerade’ and that there is more African retention in the rhythms, dances, songs and costume designs than is commonly thought. The Traditional Characters are seen as historical markers in their very physical form, presentation, rhythm, speeches and subject matter. They represent a historical landscape and a political statement as they established an intriguing and subtle struggle for possession for the public space. Most of these characters were strongly influence by the Egungun, a dominating deeply inspiring spiritual belief system that philosophically dealt with the issues of life and death.

Jeff Henry has been involved in the Canadian theatre as an actor, dancer, director, choreographer, teacher and producer. He was a senior professor and past Chair of the Theatre Department at York University. Upon retirement he was designated Professor Emeritus and Senior Scholar. He was the founder and Artistic Director of the Black Theatre Workshop Montreal and Theatre Fountainhead Toronto. For the past ten years he has been researching the history, dance, movements, and theatrical forms of the traditional masquerade characters of Trinidad. His book: Under the ‘MAS’ The Trinidad Carnival: Repression Rebellion Resistance will be published in Trinidad in January 2008. In particular the book explores the African influences that underpin such ‘Masquerade’ characters as the Midnight Robber, Devil-Dragon, King Sailor/Fireman and the Pierrot Grenade. The book celebrates the emancipation of the Africans in their own cultural manner and presentation through drum rhythms, dance forms and street processions. Jeff believes that the “masquerade of the past was structured and steeped in African influences, which should be recognized, explored and studied by all artists involved in the performing arts.

Heywood, Linda - with Thornton,John

"Public Performance in Angola and Brazil: The Central African Roots of Carnival":
         The presentation relies on visual illustrations and historical documentation dealing with public ceremonies in central Africans in the kingdom of Kongo, the Reino of Angola, Matamba, and Brazil from the 1600s to the 1830s to argue that political and religious events in central Africa and Brazil can tell us much about the roots of carnival. The paper highlights the custom of sending and receiving embassies, the public rituals that took place before wars, and the public celebration of Saints days and argues they contained the seeds that carried over into the various carnival celebrations in the Americas.

Linda Heywood is a professor of African History and African American Studies at Boston University, Boston Massachusetts. She has published several books and articles on Angola and the African Diaspora. She is the co-author (with John Thornton) of Central Africa, Atlantic Creoles and the Foundation of the Americas 1580-1660 (Cambridge University Press, 2007). She has also worked on several museum exhibitions including the African Voices (Smithsonian Institution), the Maritime Museum, and the 2007 exhibition commemorating the 400th Anniversary of the foundation of Jamestown, Virginia, at James/Yorktown, Virginia. She has also been a consultant for and appeared in the PBS series African American Lives 1 and Finding Oprah's Roots. She was also a consultant for African American Lives 11. She was a consultant and appeared in the Canadian History Channel's "Blooklines" (Yap Films). She is spending the Spring 2008 semester as a Sheila Biddle Ford Foundation Fellow at the W.E. B. DuBois Institute of African and African American Research working on a biography of Queen Njinga of Ndongo/Matamba in Angola and Brazil.

Johnson, Kim

"Seeing is Believing: A History of the Steelband Movement in Still Images":
         An audio-visual powerpoint presentation, which will give an history of the creation and development of the steelband movement through early metal percussion; first whites and women in steelband; invention of wheels; elaboration of tuning methods; steelband masquerade; rise of Invaders; Desperadoes; All stars; Starlift; the political 70s; reaction and retreat of the 80s; current trends. The topics cover pans (the instruments), steelbands (organisations including musical ensembles), music and significant events and people in the history of pan. You see what they looked like and hear what they sounded like from 1939 – the present.

Having been a journalist for most his working life Kim Johnson is now a senior research fellow at the University of Trinidad and Tobago. He has published four books, the most recent being a study of the Chinese in Trinidad and an oral history of the steelband movement. He is working on establishing a virtual museum at the UTT and an illustrated history of steelband in Trinidad, to be followed by a study of the global spread of the steelband movement.

Johnson, Stephen

         is the Director of the Graduate Centre for Study of Drama at the University of Toronto. He is the author of The Roof Gardens of Broadway Theatres, and has articles in a variety of journals, including Nineteenth Century Theatre Research, The Drama Review, Theatre Topics, The Canadian Theatre Review, and Theatre Research in Canada, which he also edited for ten years. He is completing an on-line database and website detailing blackface minstrelsy in Britain from 1842 to 1852, funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. He is also a member of the Playwrights Guild of Canada, and the Writers Union of Canada.

Kivinen, Hannele

"The Carnivalesque Lesbian in Angela Carter’s Nights at the Circus and Djuna Barnes’ Nightwood: Imploding the Inside/Outside Binary":
         Analyze the transgression of the heteronormative gender binary in carnivalesque literature –through examining George Bataille’s L’Erotisme and Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble in correlation with Angela Carter’s Nights at the Circus and Djuna Barnes’ Nightwood – this paper focuses on the revolutionary signifier of the lesbian within the carnivalesque.
          When discussing the carnivalesque, attention needs to be paid to Michel Bahktin. Absurdity, satire, and parody are all elements of the carnivalesque, and I examine how all of these effects combine to implode the norm. Within the temporary state of the carnivalesque, the inside/outside binary is completely destabilized: there is no inside/outside. Bataille’s notion of boundaries, abjection and transgression, and Butler’s analysis of the sex/gender/desire matrix and compulsory performance will be applied to deconstruct the inside/outside binary; and these theories are applied to Nights at the Circus and Nightwood, which are both notably ‘carnivalesque’ in their content and form. Both novels engage with lesbian characters and themes, and illustrate the easy alliance formed between the carnivalesque and lesbian texts. The lesbian body becomes a site of the carnivalesque.

Hannele Kivinen has just finished her first year of the PhD program in English Literature at York University. She recently completed two MA’s in London, England, in Literature and Modernity, and Gender, Sexuality, Culture and Politics. Her main interests lie in the application of gender and queer theory to both modern and postmodern literature.

Knauer, Lisa Mayer

"Consuming slavery, performing Cuba: ethnography, the carnivalesque and the politics of black public culture":
         In his book Silencing the Past, anthropologist Michel-Rolph Trouillot notes that "any historical narrative is a particular bundle of silences." Trouillot further argues that responsibility for unpleasant episodes, such as the Holocaust or slavery, is defused by relegating those events to the realm of the unthinkable or unimaginable. This paper draws upon Trouillot's work to interrogate the presences and absences of the history of slavery in the heritage landscape of Cuba, framed within the larger context of the politics of black cultural expression in public spaces. I examine an annual folkloric procession called the Salida de los Cabildos that recreates the colonial era “black carnival” – the only day that slaves were allowed to occupy public space, along with the “everyday performances” of black women in colonial-era garb who ambulate through the historic district, and the many dolls and other touristic souvenirs for sale throughout the island that rehearse racialized and gendered tropes from the slave era. These performances reflect a larger ambivalence concerning race in the Cuban national imaginary. Rather than focusing on slavery as a mode of institutionalized violence, a set of social relations, and ideological structures, Cuban narratives tend to celebrate the contributions made by peoples of African descent to Cuban national identity. There is an interesting and dialectical interplay between the ethnographic and the carnivalesque as modes that state institutions employ to deal with black culture, but at the same time other social actors, including performers and audiences, can lay claim to these projects for their own purposes.

Lisa Maya Knauer is assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. She has been researching and writing about Afrocuban culture in New York and Cuba for the past decade. She has published several articles and book chapters on Afrocuban music, religion and media. These include "La rumba y la santeria en Nueva York y la Habana" (Culturas Encontradas: Cuba y los Estados Unidos, ed. John Coatesworth and Rafael Hernandez. Havana: Artes y Letras, 2001), and “Afrocuban Religion, Cuban Museums and the Nation” (co-ed. Lisa Mayer Knauer: forthcoming Duke University Press in Memory, Race and the Nation in Public Space. She also co-edited Memory and The Impact of Political Transformation in Public Space (Duke 2004). She is currently working on a book on transnationalism in Afrocuban religious and musical practices.

Lord, Cassandra

"Wrong day, Wrong Parade "Caribana Stray": Pelau "Out of Place" in the Toronto Pride Parade":
         In July, 2003, Fab, a Toronto gay weekly magazine featured a section with photos and commentary on “fashion” in the Toronto Lesbian and Gay Pride Parade in its “post-Pride” issue. Underneath one of the photos which featured a black queer man whose chest was painted, was the caption: “Wrong day, Wrong parade…Caribana stray” and “Is this a voodoo or voo-don’t.” The unidentified man was a member of “Pelau Masqueerade” a queer community group in Toronto, fashioned after the cultural bands found in the Trinidad and Tobago Carnival, as well as the Toronto Caribana Parade. This paper explores the relationship between “Pride”, “Pelau” and “Caribana” in order to suggest that the statement in Fab signals a larger discussion on how competing claims to space are linked to practices of citizenship. Such discourses can reveal how the act of seeking recognition through separate axes of sexuality and race excludes queer and racialized groups from claiming membership to the Canadian nation-state in multiple, contradictory and overlapping ways.

Cassandra Lord is a PhD candidate in the Department of Sociology and Equity Studies in Education and The Collaborative Women and Gender Studies Program at the University of Toronto OISE/UT. Her research area(s) include: Feminist and Gender Studies, Diaspora Studies, Queer Theory and Critical Geography.

Lovejoy, Henry

"Transculturation of the Oyo Bere Festival in the Dia del Reyes in Colonial Cuba":
         This paper examines the relationship between drums and drumming and the political, religious, and cultural composition of slave society in Cuba during the first half of the nineteenth century. In accordance with my analysis of historical, anthropological and ethno-musicological data related to bàtá drums, I argue that bàtá traditions were not static, but were subject to innovation and interaction between West Africa and Cuba. The evidence remains in that bàtá drums from West Africa and Cuba have maintained physical and cultural similarities due to their close association with Sango worship, whereby the Sango cult was the dominant religious organization of the former Oyo Empire. Thus drums, and bàtá in particular, provide a means of examining the cultural systems of Yoruba belief and how they have deviated through the symbolic re-establishment of the Oyo Empire in Cuba. This study is specifically concerned with understanding the process of ethnic reconfiguration under slavery and the emergence of “creole” cultures in Cuba. I have hypothesized that the colonial holiday Día de Reyes was appropriated in the symbolic reestablishment of the Oyo Empire in Cuba in the late 1820s and 1830s, which had particular “meanings” to slaves of Oyo descent. Oyo slaves may have perceived the Día de Reyes as the bèrè festival. The bèrè festival took place toward the end of the agricultural year, between late February and early March. It was an important annual festival for three reasons: First, the bèrè grass was a form of tribute paid to the Aláàfin. The grass was used to thatch the roofs of houses and to feed the horses of the royal cavalry. Second, it marked the start of the new agricultural year for the bèrè grass. And third, it marked the time of year when the king would add another year onto his total reign. The Día de Reyes and colonial attitudes toward drumming were integral to the transference, accommodation and “transculturation” of bàtá drums in Cuban slave society.

Henry Lovejoy is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of California, Los Angeles in History. He has two M.A.s in Latin American History, one from UCLA and one from York University, Canada

Lovejoy, Paul E.

"Transformations of Masquerades in the African Diaspora":
         The tradition of masquerades in western Africa was historically associated with religious and political institutions that reinforced social structures and established mechanisms for determining citizenship. In many cases, masquerades were associated with what anthropologists and other have called “secret societies,” such as ekpe in the interior of the Bight of Biafra or poro along the upper Guinea coast. In both cases, the societies were anything but “secret,” since people knew that these were associations of the most influential men, all of whom were well known locally. The question of “secrecy” only related to the collective nature of decisions which protected the individual identities of members. The functions of masquerades in diaspora also were important as public ceremonies that served to unite communities and impose social order, but in contrast to their functions in western Africa, the masquerades became a mechanism of survival under slavery. Rather than demonstrating continuity with the African past, the transformation of masquerades in diaspora reflected a reversal of functions, from one based on domination to one based on subordination.

Paul E. Lovejoy FRSC is Distinguished Research Professor in the Department of History. He holds the Canada Research Chair in African Diaspora History and is Director of the Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on the Global Migrations of African Peoples. He has published 28 books, including Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa (2nd ed., 2000) and the early Jamaican novel, Busah's Mistress, Or Catherine the Fugitive. A Romance Set in the Days of Slavery, by Cyrus Francis Perkins. Professor Lovejoy is a member of the International Scientific Committee of the UNESCO “Slave Route” Project, Secteur du Culture. He served as Associate Vice-President (Research) at York University from 1986 to 1990 and was a member of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada from 1990 to 1997, serving as Vice-President from 1995 to 1997. He received a Killam Senior Research Fellowship from the Canada Council in 1994-97 and was Visiting Professor at El Colegio de Mexico in 1999. In 2007, he was awarded the degree of Honorary Doctorate of the University from the University of Stirling for his scholarship.

McCalman, Lionel

"Carnival and the steel band in perspective: From Multiculturalism to Community Cohesion. A case study of the Notting Hill Carnival":
         Efforts to reform the social corridor of the British cultural landscape (from multiculturalism to community cohesion); have been ongoing in the UK for the past five years. Currently a number of districts are implementing reforms around the policy of ‘community cohesion’. Carnival Arts Education has a particular appeal through its emphasis on steel pan music, costumes and creative agendas, and changes can be seen in many inner city schools. Some teachers struggle to make sense of the differences and changes taking place. In an effort to bridge the “reform gap” and to facilitate the debate on ‘the role of carnival’, the paper will explore ‘Symbolic interactionism’ as a theoretical framework for carnival research, with particular reference to the Notting Hill Carnival. This framework provides a structure to consider group and individual actions and change, the perspective of self in various contexts, and the interplay between beliefs as spoken and beliefs in action.

Lionel McCalman is University Lecturer, Education and Arts, and Steelpan Tutor at several London schools. He was Co-organiser of the first Steelpan Conference, London (2006) and a Conference Speaker at the Steelpan Standardisation Symposium, 2007 (SV2G, Arts Council sponsored project). He is also Governor at several school; and works on projects with disabled and socially deprived groups, being the main tutor and musical director of Steelpan Academy, UK - Workshop - “Pan-Around-The-Neck” (2008)

McLauchlan, Laura

"Curling Up With the Carnival: Carol Shields and the Blue-Rinse Banshees":
         Looking to Canadian women writers moving past the thematic territory of "dying for love", to a new appreciation of "the form of theater" located not in “the lonely pronoun of [a] body,” but in “the beckoning world,” my paper will look at Carnival as a governing trope in Carol Shields Dressing Up for the CARNIVAL (2000) and other Canadian women writers: Kristjanna Gunnars Carnival of Longing (1989), and Alice Munro's The Lives of Girls and Women (1971). I am interested in looking at the way carnival is used as a metaphor for adult sexual energy in the (earlier) two books by Gunnars and Munro, and then changes in Shields' late book of short stories, Dressing Up for the Carnival, a work which directs emphasis away from the individual in love to “Dressing Up” to assert the self as a part of a larger community. The book’s first line proclaims that “All over town people are putting on costumes” and proceeds to puzzle the sexual heat of desire in individual lives, then, finally in the last story, “Dressing Down,” offers a tongue-in-cheek, nudist, “goodby”. My paper will look at the manner that Carol Shields shares last laugh(s), and comic wisdom with readers, refusing to be discouraged by newsworthy “‘topics’ such as cancer and child abuse” while always in close proximity – as carnival traditionally is – to both sex and death, in the middle of life.

Laura McLauchlan is a sessional professor at York University, currently teaching Contemporary Canadian Women Writers. She completed her Ph.D. in Contemporary Canadian Women's Literature in 1997, and earned a Bachelor of Journalism at King's College, Halifax in 2002. Her work has appeared in "The University of Toronto Quarterly,” "Canadian Women Studies," and "The Globe and Mail." Last October she gave a paper in Fargo, North Dakota titled "Whitestream Modernity Meets First Nations: Teaching 19th Century Canadian Literature." She is working on a series of interviews with Contemporary Women Writers including Toronto-based Martha Baillie (The Shape I Gave You, 2006), and Nova Scotian, Catherine Banks (Bone Cage, 2008). McLauchlan lives in Toronto with her partner, Raymond Rogers, and son Lauchlan.

Newman, Zoe

"'How Far We've Come': Queer Pride, National Belonging, and Difference as Spectacle":
         Recent representations of Toronto LGBTQ Pride suggest white, middle class queers belong in the public spaces of the city, indeed are proof of Canadian tolerance. At the same time as newspapers construct Pride as a symbol of liberalism and mobility – of “how far we’ve come as a society,” in the words of one article – the celebration and its participants also serve as spectacle. This paper starts from local print coverage of the Pride parade in Toronto to consider questions related to narratives of public space, whiteness, and national belonging: who is authorized to celebrate their difference on Yonge Street, a space that is often cast as metonym of Toronto? Who can occupy the front page of the newspaper as a message of Canadian liberalism? This comparison is particularly acute in Toronto, where Carnival/Caribana, the annual Caribbean community festival, is literally relegated to the outskirts of the city, and is routinely characterized in the media as dangerous. I then discuss how the bodies on display in Pride coverage secure an image of ‘exotic’ sexuality, and tell a story of the onlookers that recuperates Canadian citizenship as white, tolerant, and heterosexual. Finally, I am concerned with the corporatization of Pride, which reflects the assimilation of political campaigns for civil rights, and the broader commodification of citizenship under economic globalization.

Zoë Newman works on themes of citizenship, public space, and the production of sexual and racial difference. She is currently teaching in the Sociology Department at York University.

Nightingale, Eithne - with Guy Baxter:

"Breaking the mould - from the streets into the museum":
         The paper will explore the impact of Carnival as a people’s art moving into a public space which prides itself as being a world class museum for the fine and decorative arts. The experience of bringing Carnival into the V&A has posed many questions.
         How does a national museum, for example, build trust and sustain effective relationships with carnival groups and artists? How does it position such a transient art form – as contemporary art or heritage, as ‘popular’ or fine and decorative art or as theatre? How does the success in bringing in black audiences through its public programme influence other aspects of the museum’s activity e.g. the acquisitions, display and interpretation of African diaspora objects within its collections including in relation to Carnival? The lack of African objects at the V&A is partly due to the fact that within the colonial period much of the art from sub-Saharan Africa was categorised as anthropology rather than art.
         For audiences what is the significance of giving credence or introducing the general public to the more artistic, cultural and heritage aspects of Carnival whose knowledge of Notting Hill may be confined to an annual day out or adverse media coverage? Carnival prides itself of being on and off the street. What happens when it moves into a mainstream institution with a colonial past? How can such initiatives support the passing on of the art and heritage of carnival to the younger generation and to the wider community including through the schools curriculum?
What is the future of Carnival at the V&A? Should its focus be on collecting, on working with carnival communities to strengthen their capacity in preserving heritage? Or should we up the game through collaborations with international artists and sponsors and towards a major event for the 2012 Olympics?
         (The paper will be accompanied by photographs, interviews, audience responses and film clips showing how the Museum has been brought to life when Carnival comes to the V&A.)

Eithne is Head of the Diversity Strategy Unit at the V&A museum of art and design in London and where she has worked for ten years. She has taken a lead on developing programmes and initiatives which reflect the diversity of UK society. In particular she has developed programmes related to carnival - education programmes, workshops, films, lectures, days of record, displays of costumes and photographs etc. She has also worked in community and adult education and on inner city regeneration projects and is a published writer and photographer.

Noel, Samantha

"De Jamette In We: Jametteness in Contemporary Trinidad Carnival":
         The predominance of women in Trinidad Carnival and the “skin mas’” that complements it suggests women’s urgent need to manipulate the body as an aesthetic medium and site of subversion. The complementary bikini-based costuming is a consequential and critical response to the expressive needs of the masquerader who is intrinsic in the aesthetic evolution of Trinidad Carnival. My paper will examine the history of women’s self-expression as it was manifested corporeally in Trinidad Carnival. I will do so by exploring the figure of the jamette whose self-presentation and performativity have become cornerstones for the contemporary women masqueraders’ corporeal vocabulary and dominant costume aesthetic. The jamette often defied Victorian codes of behaviour and the established order from the late nineteenth to the mid- twentieth century, despite being constantly surveyed and scrutinized. She was bold, unafraid to be assertive, and her lack of inhibition mirrors the movements of today’s women masqueraders. While there was a steady increase in the number of women of varying races and classes masquerading during Carnival in the 1970s due to social, cultural and economic shifts, by the 1980s the influence of the jamette, who subversively articulated her corporeality, was pivotal in the way women masqueraders now manipulated their bodies. The disconcerting reactions were immense, as it soon became a moral and sociological issue of national stature. I believe that anxieties of the supposed ‘primitivization’ that is embedded in the perception of this type of performance further complicated the concerns of the authorities. While it would not be until the 1990s for the negative connotation associated with the jamette to gradually diminish, by exploring Carnival of the early 1980s I can assess the corporeal vocabulary that the woman masquerader has developed today that I term jametteness, a performativity that asserts both a creative and subversive impression on the festival.

Samantha Noel is a writer and art historian specializing in African Diasporic Art and Contemporary Art. At present, she is a PhD candidate in the department of Art, Art History and Visual Studies at Duke University where she is completing her dissertation currently entitled “Carnival is Woman: Gender, Performativity and Visual Culture in Contemporary Trinidad Carnival.”

Nurse, Keith

"'Carnivalizing’ the World-System: Popular Culture and the Re-imagination of the Americas":
         Almost every country in the Americas (especially the Caribbean) has a carnival festival and they have grown in stature and importance as socio-economic and politico-cultural phenomena. The carnivals of the Americas that are focused on in this paper are those forged in the colonial era and are associated with plantation society. Particular emphasis is given to the ‘big three’ carnivals: Rio Carnival in Brazil, New Orleans Mardi Gras and Trinidad Carnival. The carnivals of the Americas are transnational and transcultural formations, the consequence of the parallel processes of globalization and diasporization. This movement refers to the historical development of the modern capitalist world-system, which resulted in the extermination of a large percentage of the indigenous population of the Americas, the establishment of a dominant European culture, the enslavement of imported Africans, the indentureship of Asians and the integration of sundry other groups from the “Old World.” The aim of this paper is to theorize on the linkage between geoculture and popular culture with reference to carnival festivals in the Americas. The paper argues that popular culture gives insight into the configuration of global social forces and allows for the unmasking and reimagination of geocultural and hegemonic constructions embodied in notions of empire, nation, class, ‘race’, gender, sexuality, ethnicity and even development. As such, the paper starts from the premise that popular culture, carnival and festivals are not just an aesthetic and commercial space where psychic and bodily pleasures are enacted, represented and marketed. It is an arena where social values and meaning are put on public display, negotiated and contested. The popular culture and festivals of the Americas, particularly carnivals, are theorized as diasporic and hybrid sites for the ritual negotiation and reinvention of cultural identity and practice between and among various social groups in the Americas.

Dr. Keith Nurse is Senior Lecturer at the Institute of International Relations, University of the West Indies, President of the Association of Caribbean Economists and Coordinator of the post-graduate programme in Arts and Cultural Enterprise Management at UWI, Trinidad and Tobago. On the advisory board of the new MA in Technology Governance at the University of Tallinn, Estonia, he has worked as a consultant to several governments, NGOs and international organizations in the Caribbean, Europe, North America and Africa.
         He is author of Festival Tourism in the Caribbean (IDB 2004), The Caribbean Music Industry (Caribbean Export Development Agency) and co-author of Windward Islands Bananas: Challenges and Options under the Single European Market (Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 1995). He is editor of The Cultural Industries in CARICOM: Trade and Development Challenges (CRNM/EU Proinvest 2006), co-editor of Caribbean Economies and Global Restructuring (Ian Randle Publishers, 2002), Globalization, Diaspora and Caribbean Popular Culture (Ian Randle Publishers, 2004) and Remittances and Beyond: Migration, Diaspora and the Global Caribbean Economy (forthcoming). He has published on the economics of the clothing, banana, tourism, copyright and cultural industries. He has also written on development cooperation and research capacity strengthening, migration and diaspora, HIV/AIDs and security, and gender and global economic restructuring.

Octave, Anthea - with Patrice Briggs

"Play Back We Story in Mas Style":
         This workshop utilizes a variation of playback theatre and performance ethnography to engage a migrant community to tell stories of their homeland, reasons for leaving and their present circumstances and challenges in their ‘new’ homeland. The team will make use of playback theatre and carnival arts to address, at a community level, the effects of migration and the challenges of claiming space in a foreign land. The idea is that these stories told through carnival mas and masking, though starting off as individual, will connect with the entire group and develop into expression as a collective. Therefore, as a community arts-based intervention, this workshop affords the opportunity for participants to gain insight through performance of their own stories, which articulate their identity and place in this adopted space. The community will be previously identified by the presenter and will be restricted to persons who migrated in the last 10 to 15 years, although there will be no age restriction.

Anthea Octave is a research assistant with the Carnival Studies Unit, Department for Creative and Festival Arts, University of the West Indies and is completing the MPhil in Cultural Studies at UWI. Patrice Briggs [co-practitioner] is the Head of the Business Development in Arts-in-Action, the outreach arm of the Department of Creative and Festival Arts at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago. Ms. Briggs holds a Bachelors of Arts degree in English Literatures and Theatre Arts, a post graduate diploma in Arts and Cultural Enterprise Management (ACEM) and is also a Part-time Lecturer in the Certificate Programme in TIE and Educative Theatre in the department. She enjoys dancing and can be found ministering through song or directing theatrical productions within the charismatic People of Praise Community, of which she is a covenanted member.

Ottley, Rudolph

"Women in Calypso":
         Research has indicated that "women" were the pioneers of the art form of calypso, especially the document of 1884 which dealt with "groups, assembly of individuals and loitering" in public places. The proclamation was called Ordinance (2) of 1884. That ordinance prohibited the assemblage of felons, persons convicted of riot or affray, common prostitutes, rogue and vagabonds to the nmber of ten or more in any house, building or yard or other place. As a result of such oppressive laws, the cultural landscape of Trinidad was radically transformed. "The stick fighting bands, which had represented and controlled entire districts, were replaced by the smaller and more manageable social unions whose venues were the yards of Port of Spain, San Fernando and other towns. These yards now held annual rehearsals of the carnival songs of their respective bands, and were the precursors of the bamboo and coconut tents of the early 20th century.With the passing of such repressive laws, it meant that the social structure of the society had changed; the cultural ethos of the society was redefined and controlled by the colonial masters. Such a fact resulted in the bands/groups going underground in an effort to continue practicing their craft. But the women did not willingly adhere to the laws of 1884. As a result of such laws they "abandoned their usually metaphorical cariso language and protested the ban with open obscenity of word and gesture. They were anything but silent, they sang even more fiercely than usual". Witout that approach to the ordinance of 1884 by he women folk of the day, one could propose a view that "folk singing/calypso" the calypso artform might have disappeared from the realm of colonial society and migh have been totally lost to the populace of the 21st century. What has transpired in calypsodom since 1884 has been the marginalisation of women in calypso, what a reversal of roles, from saviour to intruder, and I describe the women presently involved in calypso as intruders simply because their presence is now perceived as peripheral, secondary and occasional because the artform had changed into a male dominated vocation. My presentation will focus on issues relating to the historical role of women in calypso; the female calypso pioneers; women in the calypso tents; the stigmatisation of women in calypso; women and the calypso competitions; societal themes that women sing about in calypso; women in caribana calypso competitions such as "CUP AH TEA AND MACOMERE FIFI". My presentation will be illustrated by a media display of newspaper clippings, historical documents, photographs and film recordings of female calypsonians in performance.

Rudolph Ottley is the Manager of the DIVAL CALYPSO CABARET INTERNATION, the world's only all female calypso tent, which started in Trinidad in 2003 and is still operational . He has published five books on calypso: Women in Calypso (part 1, 1992 – part 2, 2007); Calypsonians from Then to Now (part 1, 1995 – part 2, 1998 – part 3, 2007). He has also presented academic papers on calypso at Hartford, Conn. in 1998, in Trinidad at the National Carnival Committee's carnival conference in 1999, at Florida University, Miami, USA in 2003. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from York University. a bachelor of Education degree from the Ontario Teachers Education College (OTEC), and a Masters degree in Vocational Guidance and Counselling from Niagara University, Niagara, New York, USA.

Peimer, David

"Myth, African Ritual in Contemporary South African Performance":
         South Africa is a society in massive transformation. Like the culture, the theatre is in what Turner would call the liminal phase, in between what was and what may be. Divided by racism for so long, the phase reflects the yearning to engage with the historical trauma.
         So too with the theatre; it has moved from being overtly political and anti-apartheid to a profound adventure into the connections between African ritual and western aesthetics. bTo understand these connections I will focus on 3 key questions: What is African ritual? What links these two modes of performance? What elements of ritual are being transformed in the creation of this new theatre?
         African ritual is the experience of an action with the aim of accessing the mythical world; the world of spiritual or religious belief systems. By accessing it, meaning is made of this world and of the unpredictable forces of nature. African ritual is the vehicle that transports one to a direct experience of the mythical, spirit world. The vehicle is not a car, but rather a spaceship; one leaves the familiar materiality of earth and travels to a different world with another reality orientation. The experience of the spaceship journey itself will have a profound and transforming effect. Thus ritual creates a passage way. In ritual the individual’s unconscious goes into the collective unconscious memory of the mythological realm. Here, archetypes (the spirits) can inhabit the participant.
         The link between ritual and theatre lies in Peter Brook’s idea that the aim of theatre is to “make the invisible world visible”. African ritual is the experience of an action with the aim of accessing the mythical world; the world of spiritual or religious belief systems. This is what Brook means by the “invisible world”. Accessing it is to make it visible; a materialized experienced event. Thus African ritual and theatre have very similar aims. The important question is: what elements of ritual and myth are being transformed (not transplanted) in the making of contemporary South African theatre? This will be engaged with in my paper.

David Peimer, playwright and director, has taught for over 17 years at universities in Johannesburg, London, and Prague. Born in South Africa, he founded Myth Inc. Theatre Company in the 1980's to write and direct anti-apartheid theatre (he has done extensive theatre work in rural Zululand and the township of Soweto). He has directed and written new South African theatre which has been staged in Johannesburg, London, Bristol (UK), Prague. He has also done work for Amnesty International in South Africa; using theater techniques to help former apartheid police and ANC freedom fighters to forge a new police force with notions of human rights at the core. During apartheid, he was imprisoned and interrogated for some of his work. In 2001 Peimer was invited by President Havel to stage theatre at Forum 2001 in Prague. In 2003, he created a three storey high art installation, and nightly performances for the world renowned Prague Quadrennial. Peimer has been awarded the George Soros Fellowship, Goethe Institute Fellowship, South African National Arts Council Fellowship and a Fulbright Scholarship at Columbia University. He recently spent a year teaching at NYU (Prague Division) and at the Havel Foundation in Prague. He has won numerous playwriting awards in South Africa, presented papers at conferences in Oxford, London, Bristol, Berlin, Hamburg, Prague, New York. His most recent play and book will be published in New York in December 2008.

Peters, Ed

"The Challenge of Steelpan Crafting Today: Reestablishing an identifiable characteristic tone in each instrument of the steelpan family":
         This presentation will explore some of the complex characteristics and behaviours of a vibrating membrane from a pan-maker’s perspective. It will examine the various factors which affect the overall tone of a pan, and discuss the tuning methods used to control the tone of the pan instrument. (Instruments will be used as much as possible to support this presentation.)

Ed Peters has been manufacturing steelpans for over 40 years. Together with Mike Salvador, in 1981, he received a patent for innovations they developed for this instrument. Ed has been and is still very active in the pan community in Toronto and Trinidad. Ed continues to concentrate on projects to improve the quality of the instrument

Phillip, Lyndon A.

"Soft Authoritarianism: The 1967 Canadian Centenary and the Emergence of Caribana":
         Caribana emerged in a specific performance of Anglo-Canadian nationalism, the 100th anniversary of Canada in 1967. In this paper, I wonder about the "integration and inclusion" of Caribana in this national context against the "expulsion of other markers of blackness" from the Canadian landscape, such as the historic settlement of black people in Africville, Nova Scotia. What I try to do in this discussion is question what it means politically for the Canadian state to embrace Caribana in a program of national recognition, while it simultaneously discards and rids itself of another sign of blackness that it finds contradictory to its future vision. This discussion is part of my current research project on the socio-political history of Caribana and its varied relations to the Canadian state.

Lyndon Phillip is a doctoral candidate in Sociology and Equity Studies at OISE/University of Toronto. He has written a dissertation called "There's Hardly Any Chipping These Days": The Reinvention of Toronto's Caribana". In general, his broader scholarship examines the cultural production of contemporary black Canadian relations. He has conducted ethnographic fieldwork in Toronto on the cultural formation of the Caribana Festival. His interests include global black studies, expressive black cultures, literature and art. He has published chapters on youth cultures and the politics of cultural transformation in the Caribana Festival. Currently, he is researching the governance and administrative features of the Festival's early years in 1967.

Phillips, Everard

"The Political Calypso – A Sociolinguistic Process In Conflict Transformation":
         The calypso, which forms an integral part of the cultural carnival celebration of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a syncretic popular art form that has its origin in Africa. The art-form, having been influenced and adapted by the experiences of enslaved Africans in the Diaspora, has been fused in the vortex of plantation society. Today, the music of carnival has evolved considerably, so that the calypso has become one of the cornerstones of our carnival celebration, having been significantly influenced by this Carnivalesque tradition. Recording as it does some of the experience from the extensive ethnographic research, the principal objective of this presentation is to illuminate key processes that underlie a different, yet complementary approach by calypsonians, as agents of non-governmental political action. In doing so, the presentation recognises the pre-existing formal and informal modes of dispute resolution. In extending on that duality, it adds a third model that is a non formal, cultural community conflict management mechanism, applicable to Trinidad &Tobago’s local, temporal context. By adding this new set of intellectual tools, this paper enables recognition of the language of calypso as “Symbolic Action” in resolving conflict in the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. This presentation augments the link between methods of dispute resolution and culture in concurrence with Clifford Geertz’s view that there is a direct relationship and correspondence between law and myth, ritual, ideology, art or classification systems focused on structures of meaning, especially on the symbols and systems of symbols through whose agency such structures are formed, communicated and imposed. The presentation therefore exposes aspects of those Calypsos that offer commentary on the socio-political and/or economic issues in the Republic of Trinidad & Tobago (Trinbago), recognising them as bedded in the popular practice of ritual resistance. It examines the developments in the field of dispute resolution showing how this specific sub-set of Calypsonians can legitimately be situated in the field of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). It shows how, through the medium of these Calypsos, the skilful Calypsonian, using verbal creativity, freely comments on aspects of Trinbago’s everyday life, exposing scandals of politicians and the rich, while recounting gossip, as they redress the powerful. This work argues that Calypsonians, using this localised language that is steeped in colloquialisms, to sing on the prevailing socio-political and economic ills within Trinbago, function as liminal-servants in an Indigenous, Non-Formal, Community Conflict Transformation Mechanism.

Everard, who is currently the Director of Training for Personal Power Unlimited, holds a Ph. D. in Dispute Resolution from the London School of Economics. He is accredited by the Mediation Board of The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and by the Legal Services Commission in the UK, where he has had extensive experience in Alternative Dispute Resolution (A.D.R.). Using the process of mediation, he has helped over 1500 parties find new ways of resolving their Commercial, Environmental, Community, Workplace, Victim/Offender, and Family disputes. He has also worked as an advocated in over 800 cases. He has designed Conflict Management Systems ranging from customer complaints to employee grievance procedures. Everard has presented papers on various A.D.R. topics at international conferences in the UK, the USA, and The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. He has also presented numerous papers at various Mediation UK conferences. He was a 1998 Winston Churchill Fellow, which allowed him to complete a comparative evaluation of dispute resolution practices and principles as they occur in the UK and the USA. A Psychotherapist and NLP Practitioner, he has designed and implemented programmes in Stress Management, Management Development, Leadership Skills, Facilitation Skills, Influencing and Persuasion Skills, Emotional Intelligence, Change Management, Anger Management, Team Building, Integrated Process Management, Effective Employee Appraisal, Conflict Resolution/Alternative Dispute Resolution, and Industrial Relations for both private and public sector organisations in the UK, the USA, and South Africa. Through the mechanism of this research into the Calypso art-Form, he has enriched and expanded the field of dispute resolution from the duality of formal and informal, to include the third non-formal strand of community conflict transformation.

Pinheiro, Christopher

"Syncretism and Secret Society: Moko Jumbie Secrets":
         The ancient art of Stilt-Dancing shape-shifts and migrates from African Shamanism to Carribean Carnivals to Canadian Arts Festivals. Rites of propitiation become celebratory rituals as country-bookie Moko Jumbie comes to town, bringing ancestral forest memories to the city. Former secret societies of warrior males mutate into gaggles of girls and boys prancing on recycled hockey-stick stilts, posing for photographers and issuing press releases.
         The Swizzle Stick theatre, springing from the confluence of Trinidadian Callaloo Company and Shadowland of Toronto Island, brings the heightened traditions of guardianship, mystery and reverence to streets and squares, parks and public places. Beyond parades, circuses and spectacle, a refining and re-defining of the roles, functions and aesthetics of the practice is presently underway.
         Founding Artistic Director of the Swizzle Stick theatre, Christopher Pinheiro shares some images, insights and ideas.

Trinidad born multi-media artist, Christopher Pinheiro, is the founder and Artistic Director of The SwizzleStick Theatre federally incorporated in Canada “to research, document and develop the ancient ritual art of Stilt-Dancing.
         Mandated to mix, merge and mutate, with a background in the Trinidad Carnival and the Toronto Carabana, and utilizing all notions of the carnivalesque, the theatre’s vision involves integrative work with many diverse communities in the contemporization of ikons, symbols, metaphors and myths and their shape-shifting into choreographic hybrids.

Prentki, Tim

"Carnival, Contradiction and the Folly of Being Human":
         This paper will be framed by a reading of Breughel’s painting, “The Battle Between Carnival and Lent” to support the hypothesis that carnival activity is best understood in modern societies as existing in a dialectical relationship with the dominant, rather than in binary opposition. From the sixteenth century’s concern with Carnival and Lent to the contemporary battle between human rights and neoliberalism, with carnivals as prime sites for the presentation of human rites, the paper will pay particular attention to the function of the fool as the key conduit for the dialectical current.
         The presenter will concentrate primarily on two historical periods: the transition from the late medieval world to the early modern in sixteenth century Europe and the twentieth century struggle between capitalism and socialism, before a brief conclusion that attempts to suggest some contemporary possibilities for the exercise of the carnivalesque. For the first period, besides Breughel’s painting, I shall give brief consideration to Bakhtin’s analysis of Rabelais, the character of Feste in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night in relation to Carnival and Lent and Ladurie’s micro-history, The Carnival at Romans. Through these references I shall explore the relationship between Carnival as a public event and carnival as an essential human quality: Carnival as both rite and right.
         For the modern period my chief focus will be upon aspects of the work of Bertolt Brecht, paying particular attention to the form and function of the carnival scene in The Life of Galileo, the drunk and sober Puntila in Herr Puntila and his Man Matti and to the dialectical functioning of Azdak in The Caucasian Chalk Circle. Time permitting I should also like to include some remarks on Dario Fo’s stage persona as fool and possibly a footnote on the Coon Carnival of Cape Town.

Tim Prentki is Professor of Theatre for Development at the University of Winchester, UK where he runs the MA in Theatre and Media for Development. He is co-author (with Jan Selman) of Popular Theatre in Political Culture: Britain and Canada in Focus and the co-editor of The Routledge Reader in Applied Theatre to be published in August of this year. He is a member of the editorial board of Research in Drama Education and has contributed articles on Theatre for Development to journals in Australia, India, South Africa and the UK. He is presently writing a book on the history of the Fool in European theatre and the figure's links to contemporary cultural interventions. This work inevitably overlaps with concepts at the heart of Carnival.

Raeburn, Bruce Boyd

"Too Hip to Hope? Post-Katrina Brass Bands and New Orleans Carnival":
         By wiping out many of the cultural wetlands that have sustained brass band “second line” parades and related Carnival activities for more than a century, Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans brass bands where they live. Although many of these bands are still grappling with the consequences of dislocation in terms of personnel, the most innovative brass bands—Hot 8, Soul Rebels, ReBirth—have returned to the city in one form or another and have been coping with the problems of re-situation in a market that has been busted by disaster. How has catastrophe affected the divisions between traditionalists and modernists that existed within the black brass band community prior to the storm? What are the strategies by which brass bands reconfigure themselves in order to meet the shifting functional imperatives that define New Orleans in recovery mode? Does music provide a way back into the culture, or is it now an escape route? Does a discrete “black Mardi Gras” existing outside of the social space reserved for the official Carnival offer a means of catharsis or reveal racial divisions that have been exacerbated by Katrina? Finally, since everyone requires their services during Carnival, can black brass bands serve as a force for amelioration? This paper will explore these questions in examining the commercial, social, and artistic imperatives that currently drive the fortunes of black brass bands in the post-Katrina environment

Bruce Boyd Raeburn, Curator, Hogan Jazz Archive, Tulane University, has a Ph.D. in History from Tulane and is a specialist on the history of New Orleans jazz and jazz historiography. Recent publications include “‘They’re Tryin’ to Wash Us Away’: New Orleans Musicians Surviving Katrina,” The Journal of American History, 94/3 (December 2007); “The Spanish American War and New Orleans Jazz,” Kultur Austausch 1(2007); “Psychoanalysis and Jazz,” The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, vol. 85, no. 4(2004); “Early New Orleans Jazz in Theaters,” Louisiana History, vol. XLIII, no. 1 (2002); and “King Oliver, Jelly Roll Morton, and Sidney Bechet: Ménage à Trois, New Orleans Style,” in The Oxford Companion to Jazz, ed. Bill Kirchner (2000). His forthcoming book, New Orleans Style and the Writing of American Jazz History will be available from the University of Michigan Press in 2009. He has also served as an historical consultant for various media projects, including “Ken Burns’ Jazz” (PBS, 2001), Blackside Films,“I’ll Make Me a World: A Century of African-American Arts” (PBS, 1999), and Joe Lauro and Don McGlyn’s “Louis Prima--The Wildest” (2000). Dr. Raeburn has worked as a drummer in New Orleans and elsewhere for the past thirty-seven years, performing and recording with artists such as James Booker, Earl King, Clark Vreeland, and The Pfister Sisters.

Ravens, Olivia

(with Marvin Barbe and Raul Gomez)
         Olivia holds a BMUS in Music Performance from the Birmingham Conservatoire, and teaches music at Chiswick Community School, running extra- curricular Steelpan groups for Year 7’s, Junior’s (years 7 -9) and Senior (years 10-11, supporting GCSE coursework). They have an annual visit to feeder primary schools to perform and give workshops. Olivia is also a participant in Paddington Arts, Westbourne Park.

Roach, Charles

"Shaping Caribana: How outside forces alter carnival in Toronto":
         This paper reflects on the ways in which pressures from outside the Caribbean community have shaped Carnival in Toronto. In particular, inter-government funding, corporate sponsorship, policing and neighbourhood protectionism will be examined.

Charles Roach was born and had his early education in Trinidad. Since 1955, he has lived and worked in Canada. He was a bandleader and solo performer as a guitarist and calypso singer from in the late Fifties and Sixties. From 1963 to 1968 he operated the Little Trinidad Club in downtown Toronto. This club featured artists such as Lord Kitchener, Lord Nelson, Lord Melody, Mighty Sparrow, Calypso Rose and Lord Superior. Roach promoted several Calypso shows at venues such as Massey Hall. In 1966, Mr. Roach was the founding chairman of Caribana. At present, he is chair of the Caribana Arts Group. Mr. Roach is a constitutional rights lawyer who combines social and cultural activism on an international scale.

Roach, Joe

"Secret Carnival: Masking and Magic from Trinidad to New Orleans":
         Those who work the hardest, play the hardest, and so the secret history of carnival is written in sweat. Looking at the post-emancipation history of festive labor, "Secret Carnival" begins with a long, hard look at the perspiring face beneath the raised white-face mask of "Koo-Koo the Actor Boy" in Belisario's "Sketches of Character" (1837) as featured in the cover image of the current exhibiton, "Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds" at the Yale Center for British Art. The argument then follows a common thread of re-appropriated labor (slaves and wage slaves working for LIFE at Mardi Gras or Jonkonnu time instead of merely working for a living), from the "Black Indians" of Trinidad to the "Mardi Gras Indians" of New Orleans, who "sweat blood" for a year to parade in beaded and feathered glory. The best evidence points to an Afro-diasporic affirmation of the idea best expressed by William Morris's paraphrase of John Ruskin: "Art is the name that we give to the beauty of our labour."

Joseph Roach, the Charles C. and Dorathea S. Dilley Professor of Theater at Yale University, is the author of The Player’s Passion: Studies in the Science of Acting (1985), Cities of the Dead: Circum-Atlantic Performance (1996), and IT (2007), a study of the charismatic attraction exerted by abnormally interesting people. He is the recipient of a Distinguished Achievement Award from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, which funds the World Performance Project at Yale.

Roach, Roz

         The Founder and Executive Director for Dr. Roz’s Healing Place, formerly the Emily Stowe Shelter for Women, is the first Black woman to build a shelter for abused women and children in Canada. She holds degrees from Concordia University, McGill University and Columbia Commonwealth University. A trained Psychoanalyst from the Psychoanalytic and Psychotherapy Institute at the Allan Memorial Hospital in Montreal, she also holds certifications at the Schulich Institute and the Personal Performance Centre in Financial Management for Not For Profit organizations, Conflict Resolution, Negotiation, Fundraising, Coaching and Peer Mentorship, Supervisory and Managerial Skills.
         In her capacity as a Consultant and Change Agent in Ontario, she has served as mediator, facilitator, board/staff developer, and anti-oppression trainer for approximately 25 organizations, including: Toronto General Hospital, Law Society of Upper Canada, Emily Stowe Shelter for Women, Ontario Human Rights Commission, Seneca College, Toronto District School Board. Since 1985, Dr. Roach has maintained a practice as a Psychotherapist and Health and Wellness Consultant. She has published research on the impact of domestic violence on Afro-Canadian women in Ontario, and lectured at The University of Toronto, The University of Saskatchewan, Columbia University and the Adler School of Professional Psychology in Chicago, USA.
She founded and funded The Makini Camp Program, a non-profit summer camp for less privileged children and youth experiencing different forms of emotional/mental trauma, and has served on a number of non-profit boards as director, including the Elizabeth Fry Society. She also donated a library at the Newton Boys School in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and spearheaded the reading club with the aim of assisting young boys to use reading as a tool to academic excellence.
         Dr. Roach serves as a consultant for the Caribbean Psychiatric Network, and as an Advisor to the Caribbean Government to create legislation around domestic violence. She has worked with the Caribbean media to eradicate domestic violence and was pivotal in setting up a Women’s Shelter in Trinidad. Dr. Roach was retained by the First female Minister of Social Development of Bahrain to bring her expertise on the impact of violence on women and children to their country. In 2004, Roz was awarded the “Woman of Distinction Award” and “The Diane Humeniuk Woman of the Year Award” which pays tribute to the exemplified accomplishments of women in and around the York Region.
         A singer/song writer, she has performed at clubs and concert venues, and has two CD’s in her repertoire. Since 2002 she has been producing and designing Caribana costume bands. In 2004 Dr. Roz became the Second Female Band Leader to bring out a band for Caribana. Bazodee Connection is a not-for-profit and promotional band that seeks to promote Caribbean/African history, encapsulate the diversity and multiculturalism of Toronto, while speaking out against social injustice.

Roberts, Jacqueline

"SV2G Steelpan in Education Project, Arts Council England":
         St. Vincent and the Grenadines 2nd Generation (SV2G), secured £78,000.00, of which £50,000.00 was invested by Arts Council England. SV2G set up the Wycombe Steel Orchestra two years ago, and launched a unique project that started in Trinidad and Tobago the summer of 2007. Members of the Steel Orchestra went to the University of the West Indies to study the syllabus and accreditation system to pilot in the UK. An examiner from the University of West Indies will visit the UK to examine the cohort of pupils preparing for the examinations in September 2008. The delegation in Trinidad and Tobago met with several faculties and departments at the University of West Indies, Pan Trinbago, various schools, Pamberi Steel Orchestra, plus several other panyards (currently known as ‘Pan Theatres’), and the British Embassy. There is currently no national graded examinations available in the UK, however this pilot project (supported by the Associated Board for the Royal School of Music) will research the possibility of an accreditation system for all to access in the UK.
        SV2G employed the steel pan academy in Coventry to assist with their research by carrying out questionnaires to current steelbands and teachers in the UK. Preliminary findings reveal that out of approximately 7,350 pupils 2,500 are currently being taught to play pan by five tutors in Manchester alone. Approximately a quarter of the sample represented currently use some form of scheme as part of their teaching. In November 2007, SV2G held a public meeting, for all organisations and individuals involved in steelpan in the UK, which concluded the need for a formation of an association of steelpan teachers and tutors. This project has also recognised and celebrated the creative achievements of young people.

Jacqueline is the co-founder and Chairman the St. Vincent and the Grenadines 2nd Generation (SV2G). SV2G raises the awareness of African and Caribbean Heritage and Culture. She is also the Chair for Carnival Network South East England; The National Association for St. Vincent & the Grenadines Associations UK; and the Creative Director for Wycombe Steel Orchestra.
        Although Jacqueline’s background is one of local government, serving as a Civic Officer, Research, Policy and African and Caribbean development work, she has also trained classically on the violin. Jacqueline serves on various advisory committees for community cohesion, funding bodies, education, as well as a Governor at a Snr and Jnr school. Her publications have ranged from local education to international campaigns for the injustice on trade.
        One of Jacqueline’s current projects from is managing the UK Steelpan in Education project for SV2G and Arts Council England. This pilot research project is to assess and create an accreditation system in the UK for the Steelpan Instrument. She led a delegation to last summer to study at the University of West Indies. Examinations were taken at the centre for Festivals and Creative Arts using the UWI steelpan accreditation system. Since then, as part of the project SV2G has an arrangement in partnership with UWI to manage their syllabus and examinations in the UK. SV2G has also recently formed an Association for Steelpan Teachers & Tutors as part of the project.

Rubin, Don

"Minstrels in Whiteface: South Africa's 'Coon Carnival'":
         A decade after the abolition of slavery in the Cape Colony, white American minstrels visited Cape Town appearing in their shows in black face. The entertainment proved popular to former slaves as a form of satire and resistance and eventually they themselves began to appear in whiteface. The Coon Carnival continues to this day during the New Year period and is as popular as ever despite sensitivities over the name itself. This paper will examine the social history of the Kaapse Klopse (Coon Carnival), its relation to Caribbean notions of Carnival and its contemporary manifestations.

Don Rubin is the Editor of Routledge's six-volume World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre and is the Director of York University's Graduate Program in Theatre Studies. He has given lectures at more than a dozen universities in many parts of the world. In 2005, he was a Visiting Professor of Drama at the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa.

Rutherford, Annabel

"Russian Carnival: Petruschka and Politics":
         Petrushka, the enormously popular Russian carnival puppet of the nineteenth century, was, for decades, a voice for the masses. He attacked the authorities mercilessly; he made crude jokes at the expense of petty bureaucrats; and he got away with saying the unthinkable at the top of his voice – only permissible in the true topsy-turvy spirit of carnival. For the Russian peasant, he was a friend in need. In 1911, Petrushka was immortalized and made familiar to the west through one of the most famous staged carnivals of the twentieth century: Petrouchka, performed by Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. But on stage, amidst all the frenzied carnival entertainment, the raucous, uncouth Petrushka of the fairground emerged as a symbolist, lovesick, clown – a pathetic figure of ridicule who, when clubbed to death, bled sawdust. Meanwhile, back on the streets, the lovable, squawking, carnival figure was swiftly disappearing. By the 1930s, Soviet officials feared Petrushka’s antiauthoritarian behaviour might incite the masses and, during the rapid restructuring of Soviet popular culture, his voice was suppressed. Never one to be silent for long, Petrushka resurfaced in Leningrad when Soviet choreographer Oleg Vinogradov staged his daringly political ballet, Petrushka (1989). Set to Stravinsky’s score, this work presents Petrushka as an innocent victim rebelling against Soviet oppression. Satirical in tone, this rarely staged work, set in a carnival of paranoia, reinstates the popular folk figure as hero of the masses. For Vinogradov, liberation of a people could occur through a return to cultural roots – for it is popular culture that characterizes a people. This paper traces the political significance of Petrushka in his various guises from the carnival arena of popular culture to the theatrical stage of high culture and explores how that figure once silenced on the street by Soviet authorities was made to dance defiantly across the stage of the Kirov.

Following a career in the performing arts as a dancer and actress in both the UK and USA, Annabel Rutherford has completed MAs in Dance History, English, and an inter-disciplinary MA in Russian Modernism. She is pursuing a PhD in English at York University, Toronto with particular interest in the interrelationship of the visual and performing arts and modernist literary texts. She has published papers on ballet, drama and art history and is dance editor for Journal of the Oscholars.

Scher, Phil

"The Power and Pitfalls of Carnival as Cultural Heritage":
         This talk has as its focus the uneasy tension that lies between the commodification of cultural forms such as Carnival in the service of the national economy in Trinidad and the protection and preservation of culture against cultural appropriation by outsiders. The tension lies, here, as I see it, in the local, official desire to participate in two different forms of valuation regarding National cultural property. On the one hand, the value of Trinidadian cultural forms such as Carnival may be and are often seen in light of international economic value. That is, what can selling Carnival bring into the national coffers? Yet at the same time the value of Carnival and its allied arts of calypso and steelband, are seen as belonging to a very different kind of valuation in which the Carnival arts belong to the nation’s patrimony and are part of a larger struggle for self-determination and identity formation. Protecting and preserving Carnival and the Carnival arts, then, is fraught with danger and filled with potential: the danger to overprotect and thus lose key dynamic elements in the form, and the potential of gaining an important opportunity to maintain important expressive cultural forms for the nation’s future.

Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Philip Scher's area of focus is the Caribbean and Caribbean diaspora, with primary research interests in the politics of cultural identity, popular and public culture, and transnationalism. He is the author of Carnival and the Formation of a Caribbean Transnation, published by the University of Florida Press in 2003, co-editor of Trinidad Carnival: The Cultural Politics of a Transnational Festival (Indiana University Press 2007) and editor of Perspectives on the Caribbean: A Reader in Representation, Culture and History (Blackwell Publishers, 2008). Other recent publications include “Copyright Heritage: Preservation, Carnival and the State in Trinidad (Anthropological Quarterly, Summer 2002), “The Devil and The Bedwetter” in Western Folklore (2007), and “Heritage Tourism in The Caribbean” in the Bulletin of Latin American Research (2007). His latest work concerns the copyright and legal protection of cultural property and expressions of folklore

Shah, Haroun - with Bessong, Daniel and Brumant, Evangelica

"The Impact of “Pan-Around-the-Neck” Steelpan Performances at Street Carnivals in Europe":
         The replacement of the traditional tamboo bamboo and other percussion by steelpans in Trinidad in carnivals during the 1940s was due in part to the mobility of the instruments. All steelpans, from a tenor (soprano) to even a low base drum was carried around the neck of the musician during the two-day pageant. In the ensuing decades, as the repertoire expanded and new boundaries were explored, each specialised pan grew into multiples to accommodate the vast range of notes now demanded on the tuners. The steelband grew into an orchestra spanning more than 10 octaves from the tenor pan to the 6 and later 12 pan-base sets. Soon the “pan-around-the-neck” tradition gave way to a highly complex racking system to facilitate the ever increasing number of pans now played by each panman. This was later followed by movement to the “big truck”, now commonplace at carnivals globally. The outcome is not only a distancing of the musicians from the street participants but also the replacement of traditional steelpans by powerful sound systems; the latter being cheaper, simpler and louder and driven by commercial interest.
         Nostalgia Steelband dates back to 1951 when founder, Sterling Betancourt arrived in England with the legendary TASPO (Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra) to play at the ‘Festival of Britain’. Sterling stayed in England and formed Nostalgia Steelband. For over 50 years Nostalgia has almost single-handedly promoted and maintained the “pan-around-the-neck” tradition even though the notes of each steelpan must be condensed onto a single pan for mobility while still retaining the high quality, purity, rich tones and colourful rhythms that are now expected of steelbands. Nostalgia has been invited to non-Caribbean carnivals, such as the massive 100-float spectacular event of the 400 year old Bridgwater Carnival in Somerset, England, as the only steelband. Outside England, Nostalgia plays helps to create new carnivals in the heart of industrial Germany. Dortmund and Hamburg have hosted Nostalgia for several years and in Dortmund, we are joined by Pan Kultur as a combined “pan-around-the-neck” steelband; leading a carnival parade into the market place and through the tiny cobbled streets of the city thereby bringing this music in a gentle manner to this curious and astonished audience. Consequently, Dortmund is now growing in status as a carnival city in Germany and will hold its first summer Caribbean carnival in early July this year.
         The impact of the pan-around-the neck” is helping us into Taking Back the Streets” for this, the people’s art of carnival.

Haroun Shah, is a Clinical Scientist, who holds several University Chairs in Science. He is also a Steelpan Tutor, running workshops at Cavendish School and North London Collegiate School. He was then Co-organiser, first Steelpan Conference, London (August, 2006), co- sponsored by the Arts Council, England, and has been a Conference Speaker, Steelpan Standardisation Symposium (SV2G, Arts Council sponsored project), as well as contributing to arts projects such as a Brazilian-Caribbean Carnival Workshop, 2007. He has also been a demonstrator in Steelpan Academy, UK- Workshop -“Pan-Around-The-Neck”- (2008).

Sparks, Randy J.

"Why Mardi Gras Matters: New Orleans’ Expression of Collective Joy":
         The city's French residents began to celebrate Mardi Gras early in the 18th Century, and these celebrations grew to include all ranks and races in this multi-cultural setting. The Spanish prohibited black persons from being masked, wearing feathers, and attending night balls, still, by the 19th Century, most of the features that we associate with Mardi Gras today – krewes, balls, parades, masking – were well established. In 1875 Mardi Gras became a legal holiday in Louisiana, and nationwide radio broadcasts of the festival began in 1930. In 1949 Zulu, the all-black krewe, became the first to chose a celebrity as its king, native son Louis Armstrong. That practice became commonplace by the late 1960s with the emergence of larger, more open "super-krewes," which staged more lavish parades with national celebrities on board, and Mardi Gras earned its reputation as the "Greatest Free Show on Earth".
          Carnival has a double face – symbolized by the masks of Comedy and Tragedy. In part, Mardi Gras remains secretive krewes which also serve as debutante societies and private clubs controlled by the white establishment – and another side that lampoons that segment of society through black krewes like Zulu and their African tribal attire to the open parading of whores, homosexuals and drag queens. A significant aspect of Carnival is and has been since the beginning subversive, an overturning of the social order, a celebration of freedom through open transgressions of the social mores that define the ruling elite whether in the 18th or 21st Century. Many African American social clubs organize their formal balls around carnival season. With names like the Bunch Club, the Vikings, and the Plantation Revelers, many of these clubs date back to the early 20th century and help define the city's black middle class. Or begin the day on Frenchman Street where the Society of St. Anne assembles. Predominantly gay, the outlandishly costumed revelers, led by the Storyville Stompers brass band, march through the Quarter to Canal St. in time to march behind the Rex parade. And these are only a few examples of the many-layered meaning of Carnival for the people of New Orleans.

Randy J. Sparks, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair, Department of History, Tulane University.

Sullivan, Nestor

"The Development of the Steelband as a Global Industry: Some imperatives for Trinidad and Tobago":
         This purpose of this paper is to examine the international market for steelband and the related products. It will specifically address the need for Trinidad and Tobago to take its rightful place in this global market. Twenty years ago Trinidad and Tobago was at the centre of the international steelband movement. Today we are almost at the fringe of the multi-million dollar industry that has emerged.
          The paper will examine the role of carnival in the development of the instrument beginning with the African drum to Tamboo-Bamboo, the Dustbin and eventually the birth of the modern steelband. Individuals and groups that played major roles in this process will also be identified. The Socio-Economic Environment, will be examined through the international Spread of the Steelband from the late 1940’s through to 2000. The steelband industry will also be defined, through the lens of Diminishing Competitive Advantage (issues include: colonial economic structures; commercial culture; technological advancements; weakness in marketing; brain drain; global demands/ local suppliers). The conclusion will recommend imperatives for Trinidad and Tobago including a national policy; education and training for Industry; support services; market studies and strategy

Nestor Sullivan was born in San Juan, Trinidad in 1955. Started playing the steelband in 1973 with Finland Steel Orchestra of San Juan. Also played with Texaco Sky Chiefs of Belmont, Port of Spain. Was a founding member of Pamberi Steel Orchestra in 1980 and was the first Captain from 1980 to 1990 and the first Manager 1990 to present time. Touring with Pamberi, I have visited France, Italy Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Hong Kong, Canada, USA and the Caribbean. I have also participated in Seminars and Conferences in the Caribbean, Europe, North America, England, Jordan and in Trinidad and Tobago where I have presented papers on Steelband, Carnival and related subjects. Served as Operations Manager to the Trinidad and Tobago National Steel Orchestra (TTNSO) from 2001 to 2007. Taught at Elementary School in Trinidad for twenty-one years. Was a founding member of the Teachers Union and the Pan in Schools co-ordinating Council in Trinidad.

Sztainbok, Vannina

"Rosa Luna: The Embodiment of Black Femininity in Uruguayan Carnival":
         This paper considers the iconic figure of Rosa Luna (1937-1993), an Afro-Uruguayan vedette who became synonymous with Montevideo's annual Carnival from the 1950s until her death in 1993. Uruguayan identity is generally described as based on whiteness, yet draws on aspects of Afro-Uruguayan culture. Thus, it may seem paradoxical that Rosa Luna was a national symbol of sorts in this Eurocentric country. During the 1980s and 1990s she also became an ambassador of Uruguayan culture abroad, performing for exiled audiences. When she died (while performing in Toronto), Rosa Luna’s funeral procession in Montevideo was a national affair attended by hundreds of thousands. This paper considers how gender, sexuality, race, and nation are articulated and entangled through the figure of Rosa Luna, and how her image both reifies and contests hegemonic notions of black femininity.

Vannina Sztainbok is completing her Phd in Sociology and Equity Studies in Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto (OISE/UT). Her doctoral thesis focuses on the issue of race and citizenship in Uruguay, as viewed through the lens of two Afro-Uruguayan neighbourhoods, Barrio Sur and Palermo. Her general research areas include: race in Latin America, culture and identity, geography and the embodiment of race, class, and gender.

Tai, Shuxia

"Protesting with ULTRA-Man: Resistance through creative art expression in Singapore":
         This paper illustrates how people in Singapore express their concerns publicly in the face of oppressive political control of the state through the use of creative art. To prevent prosecution from the state, these attempts are covert and overt at the same time. Applying the theory of the ‘hidden transcripts’ by James Scott, the focus is on a case study where small toy figurines are used to ‘protest’ in a public space under the cover of a photo-shoot. The protest is against a local anime distributor but with codified and hidden messages it can also be read as a satire of the political oppression in Singapore.

Shuxia Tai is currently in the Master in Environmental Studies program at York University. Her research interests involve exploring art and social change in Singapore and in nonviolent and indirect resistance. She is also interested in art-based research. She dabbles in the visual art and is presently inspired to work with found objects, mixed-mediums, collages, time-based art, and interactive engagement with the audience.

Tancons, Claire

"Houses of Dance and Feathers? Carnival Museums in the Caribbean":
         If the inscription of Bolivia’s Oruro Carnival on UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage list has confirmed the status of Carnival as a cultural manifestation worthy of preservation, the display of 1980’s Diablada Dance costumes at the British Museum, might keep Carnival within the realm of folk traditions, and prevent it from being fully recognized as contemporary artistic practice. In the Caribbean, Carnival or Mas’ is both a vibrant tradition and an active creation field that still begs to be properly studied, documented, and preserved.
         This paper is concerned with the assessment of the museum as a model for the preservation of Carnival in the Caribbean. Using photographic documentation, this paper will look at a group of organizations such as El Museo Folklórico Don Tomas Morel in Santiago, Santo Domingo, the International House Museum of Winston “Zack” Nisbett in Basseterre, St. Kitts, Peter Minshall’s Callaloo Company in Chaguaramas, Trinidad, Sylvester Francis’ Backstreet Cultural Museum and Ronald Lewis’ House of Dance and Feathers in New Orleans, all of which emanate from private individuals, community leaders and carnival revelers who seem to have endorsed the museum model. It will then contrast these proto-museums/community centers with permanent or temporary Carnival displays at institutions such as the Lousiana State Museum’s Presbytère in New Orleans and the National Museums of St. Kitts and Trinidad.
         This paper will also present the work of masman Larry Richardson and visual artist Marlon Griffith—both of whom allegedly took inspiration from the permanent Carnival display at the National Museum in Port of Spain—as a case in point about the vital role Carnival museums can play in fostering contemporary carnival and visual art practices.

Parallel to her academic research into the relationships between Carnival and Contemporary Art as a third-year PhD student at Rennes 2 University, France, Claire Tancons pursues a career as a curator of contemporary art with a particular interest in processional art forms. She is Associate Curator at the Contemporary Arts Center and for Prospect. 1 in New Orleans and is a curator for the 7th Gwangju Biennale, North Korea.

Taylor, Blake

"Five Countries; One Street":
         This workshop examines video clips of contemporary Rituals, Festivals, Carnivals, Pageants and Street events in Mexico, Tobago, Barbados, Canada and the USA to uncover the hidden and not so hidden theatrical threads that bind these diverse happenings. What are the common elements that connect Carnival and Harvest in Trinidad and Tobago; The Festival of the Virgin of Guadalupe and a football celebration in Jalisco Mexico; The Gold Cup horserace and the Holetown Festival in Barbados; King Dial of Barbados and Dancing Gabe of Canada; or Native North American Celebrations and any of the above? These are some of the questions to be examined.

Blake Taylor is a documentary film-maker, teacher and actor. Professor Taylor is currently studying the theatrical elements of theatre that does not declare itself to be theatre. His research has taken him on excursions to record carnivals, festivals, rituals, celebrations and pageants in Mexico, Canada, the US and most recently Carnival in Tobago and The Holetown Festival in Barbados. His publications include educational documentaries such as the popular Laban for Actors: the Eight Effort Actions, as well as Drama Education With Special Needs Children: A Day With Andy Kempe, and recently Education Through Drama: Planning With Heathcote which features Dorothy Heathcote, the mother of the drama in education field. He began his acting career while doing his MFA at the university of New Orleans and subsequently acted throughout the south east before returning to his native Canada where he continued performing at theatres primarily in the west doing shows at Theatre Calgary, Northern Light, Manitoba Theatre Centre, Twenty Fifth Street Theatre, Prairie Theatre Exchange, the Gryphon and recently Winnipeg’s Contemporary Dancers where he played Brabantio in Othello. He performs extensively in film and television. Recent productions include Maneater, Eye of The Beast, and Something Beneath. He has also worked with a number of his former students including North of 60 star Tina Keeper. He played Mayor George Tallis in the TV series Falcon Beach which was syndicated worldwide. He is a Professor of Theatre and Film at the University of Winnipeg where he teaches acting and Drama in Education. He is married to videographer Mimi Raglan and they have a nine year old son, SEAN TAYLOR who wrote his own name.

Tompsett, Ruth

"Roots and Routes: An investigation into African influences in the art and performance of Caribbean-derived Carnival":
         Much in the Caribbean carnival performance is historically rooted in earlier West African cultural practice. While Caribbean carnivals, and those of the diaspora, historically derive from Catholic colonial celebration of mardi gras, after emancipation African-Caribbeans appropriated and profoundly transformed carnival with cultural practices and performance modes variously developed from their own African heritage. There are significant issues around finding documentation for the origins in West Africa of, for example, specific masquerades or dance steps in Caribbean carnival. However there is much generic evidence of African origins for carnival performance content, for example in terms of movement vocabulary, traditions in music making and sung commentary. Furthermore, carnival continues to be influenced by aspects of African history and culture: carnival designers keenly explore Africa through their choices of themes for carnival bands and their use of African textiles and motifs in costume design. This paper identifies some of the generic African roots in carnival practice and traces their development within the arts of both Trinidad and the diasporic British carnivals, making reference to the work of key carnival scholars. The paper will suggest approaches to distinguishing African heritage in carnival performance and will offer a brief analysis of how much any definition of a carnival aesthetic owes to African content and power. Finally the paper will illustrate the widespread influence of an African consciousness in carnival design in Notting Hill Carnival. Both the idea of Africa and carnival’s distinct African heritage are at the heart of contemporary carnival practice.

Adela Ruth Tompsett is Principal Lecturer in Performing Arts at Middlesex University. In 1986 she introduced Carnival Studies to the Performing Arts degree and has since established a widely used Carnival Archive. She has given lectures and workshops on carnival in universities and theatre projects in the UK, USA, South Africa, and Caribbean. In 1994 she organized the Black Theatre in Higher Education Conference at the University of London and in 1997 Catch the Spirit: A Carnival Arts Conference at the Museum of London. She edited Black Theatre in Britain (Harwoods, 1996) and has contributed articles and chapters on Carnival Arts to many publications. She has served widely as a carnival adviser to arts organizations, funding bodies and local government. She contributed photographs and text for Forty Years of Carnival, 2004, an exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum. She co-curated a national carnival exhibition entitled Midnight Robbers: The Artists of Notting Hill Carnival, funded by Arts Council England and the Mayor of London. It opened in City Hall, London in September 2007.

Shabaka Thompson

"Carnival and its impact on the Creative Industries":
         In June 2008 as a precursor to the London Olympics, the Carnival Village Project will be launched at the Tabernacle situated in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. The Village will also extend into Westminster in 2009 after completion of a £2.4m capital building refurbishment. Carnival Village is headed by the Yaa Asantewaa Arts and Community Centre, London foremost Black Arts Centre and is a partnership project including The Ebony Steelband Trust, Mangrove Y2K, The Association of British Calypsonians and the Yaa. The project has been awarded £4.2m Capital funding from the Arts Council of England and a further £500,000 from the London Development Agency. The aim of the project is to establish a national institution for the development of the arts and business of Carnival and its location in West London is ideal as it is situated within the boroughs that support the logistic of the Notting Hill Carnival. The paper will examine this phenomenon, which will become a major focus as part of the cultural Olympics in London 2012.

Shabaka Thompson is a cultural activist and social engineer working in community politics for over two decades in Canada, Trinidad, Britain and Africa. As the Director of London’s leading African combine arts centre, the Yaa Asantewaa Arts and Community Centre, Shabaka initiated a major capital project call the Carnival Village which will contribute to the development and sustenance of African art, especially Carnival Arts and all its related industries. In 2005 he was seconded from Yaa to take up the position of acting CEO of the London Notting Hill Carnival where he provided the necessary strategic support and expertise toward the development of a viable and more independent carnival organisation with increased authority for governing, producing and marketing the Notting Hill Carnival and all its relevant products.
         Shabaka also lectures in schools, colleges and universities on Carnival Arts and conduct workshops in primary and secondary schools across Britain and has presented papers at national and international Carnival Arts conferences. His vision is for the economic liberation of African people. His mission is to achieve this through empowerment, leadership and the development of sustainable institutions and communities.

Thornton, John

[co-presenter Linda Heywood]:
         A historian with a speciality in African History, whose first book was on his first love, The Kingdom of Kongo: Civil war and Transition, 1641-1718, (1983) His long standing interest in the African Diaspora was manifested in Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800 (1992). His interest in the slave trade and warfare led to Warfare in Atlantic Africa, 1500-1800 (1998), a book that made him quite depressed! Lately, he has published The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684-1706 (1998), exploring both women’s history and the history of religion. His latest book, with Linda Heywood, is Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660 (2007), and he is now working on a cultural history of the Atlantic World.

Tsuji, Teruyuki

"From Negue Jardin to Jamet: The Articulation of Carnival in 19th-Century Trinidad":
         This paper reexamines the sociohistorical conjunctures of 19th-century Trinidad that played out in “Carnival.” By so doing, it attempts to serve the theorization of Carnival as a reminder that facile assumption of cultural hegemony and the schematic reduction of Carnival activities and practices to rationalities and political disguises deserve closer scrutiny. The emphasis on the link between power and deployment of strategies does not deal with the implications of several important issues.
         First, by the time liberated slaves crowded street processions, pushing away colonial nobles, the cultural practices and worldviews of masters and slaves had become inseparable, yet reified as distinct and oppositional, through repeated, though temporal, festival inversions. In pre-Emancipation Trinidad, a ceremonial enforcement of martial law (originally designed to prevent the elite class from being immoral) provided a limited but enriched stage of festive inversion. During the period between Christmas and the end of Carnival intergroup boundaries were transgressed yet reinforced: Slaves celebrated Christmas in imitation of the masters, whereas planters, disguising themselves as negue jardins, performed dances of African origin.
         Second, in the post-Emancipation era, Carnival developed into a celebration of liberated slaves and working-class black urbanites, called jamettes. This transformation occurred, however, with the simultaenous intensification of intraclass politics of culture between the separate European ethno-religious factions—Protestant English and Catholic French Creoles. As a result, Carnival was both the terrain and the target of inter- and intra-class politics of culture: The jamettes challenged the privileged with their creative faculty, whereas upper- and middle-class French Creoles, who had withdrawn from street processions to prevent the further decline of their symbolic power against Anglicization, continued to claim Carnival as their own tradition.

Teruyuki Tsuji received his Ph.D. in Comparative Sociology at Florida International University and currently hold associate lectureship at Nova Southeastern University. His research has focused on transnational identity construction and its relations with religious practices in both contexts of the Caribbean and of West Indian migrant communities in South Florida. Major publications include “Mothers–Hyphenated Imaginations: The Feasts of Soparee Ke Mai and La Divina Pastora in Trinidad” in Man in India: an International Journal of Anthropology.